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tZml ImemhØm kt½f\¯n Iq«t¯mÂhn

tUm. tPmkv tPmk^v

{]^kÀ B³Uv slUv hnÚm\hym]\hn`mKw ImÀjnI tImfPv, ]S¶¡mSv

J¯dnsâ XeØm\amb tZmlbn \S¶ ImemhØm kt½f\w `qanbn Pohsâ \ne\n¸n\v `ojWn DbÀ¯p¶ lcnXKrlhmXI§fpsS hnkÀÖ\w XSbm³ hyàamb amÀK\nÀt±i§sfm¶panÃmsX Ahkm\n¨p. ap³ ImemhØm kt½f\§fnse¶Xpt]mse BtKmf Xm]\hpw ImemhØm hyXnbm\hpw t\cnSm\pÅ ASnb´c \S]SnIsfm¶pw tZml kt½f\¯nepapWvSmbnÃ. lcnXKrl hmXI§fpsS hym]\w Ipdbv¡p¶Xn\pÅ tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mfnsâ Bbpkv 2013 P\phcn H¶papX F«p hÀjt¯¡pIqSn \o«nsbSp¡m\mbXmWv tZml kt½f\¯nsâ {][m\ t\«w. F¶m "tZml ImemhØm {]thi\IhmSw' F¶t]cn Ahkm\ \nanjw X¿mdm¡nb {]Jym]\¯n lcnXKrlhmXI§fpsS AfhpIpdbv¡Â, FÃm cmPy§sfbpw DÄs¸Sp¯n \nbakm[pXbpÅ IcmdpWvSm¡Â F¶o Imcy§fn ^e{]Zamb \nÀt±i§sfm¶pw FgpXnt¨À¡m\mbnÃ. A´co£¯nte¡pÅ lcnXKrlhmXI§fpsS ]pd´Å Ipdbv¡p¶Xn FÃm cmPy§Ä¡pw \nba]camb _m[ybpÅ Hcp Icmdn\v 2015 HmsS cq]w \ÂIpsa¶pw AXv 2020 HmsS \S¸m¡psa¶pamWv tZmlkt½f\¯nsâ {]Jym]\w. temIsa¼mSpapÅ cmPy§Ä ImemhØm hyXnbm\¯nsâ KpcpXcamb {]XymLmX§Ä A\ph`n¨pXpS§nbn«pw C¡mcy¯n kp{][m\amb Xocpam\§Ä \S¸m¡p¶Xv IpdªXv asämcp F«phÀjt¯¡pIqSn \o«nh¨psh¶XmWv tZml ImemhØm kt½f\¯nsâ _m¡n]{Xw. 195 cmPy§fn \n¶pÅ 17,000 {]Xn\n[nIÄ cWvSmgvN Xe]pIªmtemNn¨n«pw ImemhØm hyXnbm\w t\cnSm\pÅ Hcp ASnb´c \S]Sn{Iaw hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¡p¶Xn tZml ImemhØm kt½f\w ]cmPbs¸«p.

ImemhØm hyXnbm\w t\cnSm³ ]mhs¸« cmPy§Ä¡v k¼¶cmPy§Ä \ÂInhcp¶ km¼¯nI klmbw h³tXmXn hÀ[n¸n¡Wsa¶v tZml kt½f\¯n BhiyapbÀ¶ncp¶p. F¶m 2010þ12 hÀj§fn \ÂInb AtX klmbw 2013þ15 hÀj§fnepw XpScWsa¶pam{XamWv tZml kt½f\¯nse Xocpam\w. Ct¸mÄ hnIknXcmPy§Ä Hcp hÀjw \ÂIp¶ 1500 tImSn tUmfdnsâ km¼¯nI klmbw 2020þHmsS 10000 tImSn tUmfsd¦nepambn DbÀ¯Wsa¶mbncp¶p ]mhs¸« cmPy§fpsS Bhiyw. hÀ[n¨phcp¶ hcĨ, shÅs¸m¡w, sImSp¦mäv XpS§nb ImemhØm ZpcnX§sf t\cnSm³ ASp¯ cWvSphÀjt¯¡pam{Xw IpdªXv 6000 tImSn tUmfdnsâsb¦nepw km¼¯nI klmbw thWvSnhcpw. A´co£¯n lcnXKrlhmXI§Ä IpanªpIqSnbXnsâ Ncn{X]camb D¯chmZnXz¯n \n¶pw k¼¶cmPy§Ä¡v Hgnªpamdm\mhnÃ. Cu cmPy§fnse A\nb{´nXamb hyhkmbh¡cWhpw A´co£aen\oIcWhpamWv ImemhØm hyXnbm\sa¶ `qXs¯ IpS¯n \n¶pw Xpd¶phn«Xv. lcnXKrlhmXI§Ä FhnsS ]pd´Ånbmepw AXnsâ {]XymLmXw temIw apgph³ A\p`hnt¡WvSnhcpw. CXv ]mhs¸« cmPy§Ä¡v Häbv¡p t\cnSm\mhm¯ km¼¯nI _m[yX krjvSn¡pw. F¶mÂ, BtKmf km¼¯nI {]XnkÔnbpsS adhn ]mhs¸« cmPy§Ä¡v ImemhØmhyXnbm\w t\cnSm\pÅ km¼¯nI klmbw hÀ[n¸n¡p¶Xns\ kt½f\¯n Atacn¡bpw bqtdm]y³ bqWnb\pw FXnÀ¡pIbmbncp¶p.

{[ph{]tZi§fnse aªpcpIpsa¶Xn\m BtKmfXm]\¯nse t\cnb hÀ[\hpt]mepw ISen Xmgv¯n¡ftª¡mhp¶ sNdpZzo]pIfpWvSv. AtXkabw kndnbsbt¸mepÅ cmPy§Ä h³tXmXnepÅ acph¡cW`ojWn t\cnSpIbmWv. Atacn¡bn hoinbSn¨ km³Un Npgen¡mäpw ^nen¸o³knse t_m^ sImSp¦mäpw B cmPy§fnse Irjn¡pw Bhmk hyhØIÄ¡pw `oIcamb hn\miw hnX¨p. ImemhØm hyXnbm\w ImcWambpWvSmIp¶ acph¡cWw t]mepÅ Nne \jvS§Ä A]cnlmcyamWv. AtXkabw sImSp¦mäv, shÅs¸m¡w, hcĨ XpS§nbhsImWvSpWvSmIp¶ \jvS§Ä¡pw \mi§Ä¡pw ]mhs¸« cmPy§Ä¡v k¼¶ cmPy§Ä \jvS]cnlmcw \ÂIWsa¶ hyhØ ImemhØm kt½f\§fpsS Ncn{X¯n BZyambn tZmlkt½f\w AwKoIcn¨p. "temkv B³Uv UmtaPv' kwhn[m\sa¶dnbs¸Sp¶ ]pXnb hyhØ Ahk\ \nanjw kt½f\w AwKoIcn¡pIbmbncp¶p. Atacn¡bpsSbpw bqtdm]y³ bqWnbsâbpw FXnÀ¸pIsf adnIS¶v sImWvSph¶ ]pXnb hyhØ `mhn NÀ¨IÄ¡v hnLmXambn amdntb¡psa¶ Bi¦bpw DbÀ¶n«pWvSv. Iym³Iq¬, UÀ_³ F¶nhnS§fn \S¶ ap³ ImemhØm kt½f\§Ä ImemhØmhyXnbm\w t\cnSm³ ]mhs¸« cmPy§Ä¡v km¼¯nIþkt¦XnI klmbw \ÂIp¶Xn\v ]pXnb cWvSp Øm]\§Ä Bcw`n¡Wsa¶v \nÀt±in¨ncp¶p. CXn km¼¯nI klmbw \ÂIp¶Xn\pÅ "{Ko³ ss¢aäv ^WvSv' sImdnb³ \Kcamb tkmWvSvtKm BØm\ambn 2014 HmsS {]hÀ¯\amcw`n¡pw. kmt¦XnIhnZy ssIamdp¶Xn\pÅ ss¢aäv sSIvt\mfPn skâdpw kao]`mhnbn Xs¶ XpS§m³ tZmlkt½f\¯n [mcWbmbn«pWvSv. s]t{SmÄ, UokÂ, I¡cn, {]IrXnhmXIw XpS§nb t^mkn CÔ\§fpw ImÀ_¬ A[njvTnX cmkhkvXp¡fpw I¯n¡p¶XneqsS h³tXmXn lcnXKrlhmXI§Ä A´co£¯nte¡v hnkÀÖn¡s¸Sp¶p. ImÀ_¬ UtbmIvsskUv, aotY³, ss\{Skv HmIvsskUv XpS§nbhbmWv {][m\ lcnXKrlhmXI§Ä. A´co£¯n Cu hmXI§Ä IqSpXembn hym]n¡p¶Xns\ "{Ko³lukv C^IvSv' AYhm lcnXKrl {]`mhw F¶v imkv{XÚ·mÀ hnfn¡p¶p. `qanbn \n¶v C³{^msdUv IncW§fmbn ]pd¯pt]mIp¶ Xmt]mÀPs¯ Cu hmXI§Ä sNdnsbmcfhn A´co£¯n IpSp¡p¶p, CXv `qansbNqSm¡pHm¶p. A´co£¯n lcnXKrl hmXI§fpsS Afhv IqSp¶tXmsS `qanbpsS NqSpw IqSp¶p. Ccp]Xmw \qämWvSn am{Xw BtKmfXm]\nebn 0.6 Un{Kn skÂjyknsâ hÀ[\hpWvSmbn. C¶s¯ \nebn A´co£¯nse lcnXKrlhmXI§fpsS hym]\w XpSÀ¶psImWvSncp¶m 21þmw \qämWvSnsâ Ahkm\t¯msS 6.4 Un{Kn skÂjyknsâ hÀ[\hv BtKmf Xm]\nebnepWvSmIpw. CXv `qanbnse PohPme§fn hensbmcp ]¦ns\bpw Iq« hwi\mi¯nte¡p XÅnbnSpw. NqSp]nSn¨ hmbphnse DuÀP¯nsâ Afhp IqSp¶Xn\m hmbp{]hm§fn h³amä§fpWvSmIpw. hmbp{]hml¯nse IqSnb DuÀPw XpSÀ¨bmb sImSp¦mäpIÄ¡pw Npgen¡mäpIÄ¡pw ImcWamIpw. {[ph{]tZi§fnsebpw lnameb¯nsebpw aªpcpIn kap{Z\nc¸v Dbcpw. sNdpZzo]pIfpw XoctZi \Kc§fpw ISen ap§n¯mgpw. shÅs¸m¡hpw A{]Xo£nXamb hcĨIfpw IrjnbpsS ASn¯d XIÀ¡pw. NqSpIqSnb ImemhØbn IoStcmK§fpw IfIfpw s]cpIpw. a\pjycpsSbpw hfÀ¯parK§fpsSbpw BtcmKy]cn]me\w henb shÃphnfnbmbn amdpw. A´co£¯nse lcnXKrlhmXI§fpsS km{µX hyhkmbhn¹hw Bcw`n¨ 1750  280 ]n]nFw Bbncp¶Xv 2005  379 ]n]nFw Bbpw 2011  391 ]n]nFw Bbpw IqSn. kap{ZPe\nc¸v 1961 \pw 2003 \pw CSbn {]XnhÀjw 1.8 anÃn aoäÀ F¶ \nc¡n IqSn. A´co£¯nse ImÀ_¬ UtbmIvsskUv km{µX 450 ]n]nF½n IqSnbm BtKmf ImemhØbn A]cnlmcyamb hyXnbm\apWvSmIpw. BtKmf Xm]\nebn cWvSpUn{Kn skÂjykne[nIw hÀ[\hpWvSmImsX XSªp\nÀ¯Ww. CXp km[n¡Wsa¦n k¼¶cmPy§Ä 2020 HmsS lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀÖ\¯nsâ Afhv 25þ40 iXam\w IWvSpw 2050 \ptijw 80þ95 iXam\w IWvSpw Ipdbv¡Ww.

`qanbnse ImemhØ Xncp¯m\mhm¯hn[w amdns¡mWvSncn¡pIbmsW¶pw Xncp¯Â A\nhmcyamsW¶papÅ kwibw 1992þ dntbmUn P\otdmbn tNÀ¶ `uaD¨tImSntbmsS IqSpX _es¸«p. CXn\pthWvSn sFIycmjv{S kwLS\bpsS t\XrXz¯n Hcp ImemhØmhyXnbm\ s{^bnwhÀ¡v I¬h³j\v `uaD¨tImSn cq]w \ÂIn. \nb{´WanÃm¯ am\pjnI {]hÀ¯\§fm A´co£¯nse lcnXKrlhmXI§fpsS Afhv A]ISIcamb Afhnte¡v F¯p¶Xv XSbp¶Xn\pÅ N«¡qSv \nÀt±in¡pIbmbncp¶p ImemhØmhyXnbm\ s{^bnwhÀ¡v I¬h³jsâ e£yw. Atacn¡ DÄs¸sS 195 cmPy§Ä I¬h³j\n AwK§fmWv. Cu I¬h³jsâ 18þm aXv hmÀjnI kt½f\amWv Ct¸mÄ tZmlbn kam]n¨Xv.

lcnXKrlhmXI§Ä A´co£¯n IpanªpIqSnbXnsâ Ncn{X]camb D¯chmZnXzw k¼¶cmPy§Ä¡mWv. A´co£¯nte¡p ]pd´Ånb lcnXKrlhmXI§fn 30 iXam\¯nsâbpw Ncn{X]camb D¯chmZnXzw Atacn¡¡mWv. asämcp 25 iXam\¯nsâ D¯chmZnXzw bqtdm]y³ cmPy§Ä¡pw. ap³Ime§fnse lcnXKrlhmXI\nÀ¤a\¯nsâ apJyImcW¡mÀ k¼¶cmPy§fmbXn\m AhÀ \nÝnX Imebfhn\pÅn lcnXKrlhmXI§Ä ]pd´Åp¶Xnsâ Afhv \nÀ_Ôambpw Ipdbv¡Wsa¶mWv s{^bnwhÀ¡v I¬h³jsâ {][m\ \nÀt±iw. F¶m A´co£¯nse lcnXKrlhmXIhym]\¯n hnIkzccmPy§fpsS Ncn{X]camb ]¦v IpdhmbXn\m AhÀ¡v asämcp am\ZÞw aXnsb¶pw I¬h³j³ \nÝbn¨p. Zmcn{Zy \nÀaÀP\w, kmaqlnI km¼¯nI hnIk\w, DuÀP kpc£nXXzw XpS§nb e£y§Ä ssIhcn¡Wsa¦n AhÀ¡v tZiotbmev]mZ\wþhÀ[n¸nt¨ aXnbmIq. AXn\m hnIkzccmPy§Ä¡v lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀP\ \nc¡v Ipdbv¡p¶Xn\v Ipsd¡qSn kmhImiw I¬h³j³ A\phZn¨p. C§s\ k¼¶cmPy§Ä¡pw ]mhs¸« cmPy§Ä¡panSbn s]mXphmbsX¦nepw thÀXncn¡s¸« D¯hmZnXzw ]¦phbv¡Wsa¶XmWv s{^bnwhÀ¡v I¬h³jsâ ASnØm\X¯zw A´co£¯nse lcnXKrlhmXIhym]\w XSbp¶Xn\v k¼¶cmPy§Ä¡v \nÀ_ÔnX e£yhpw ]mhs¸« cmPy§Ä¡v kzta[bm DÅ \S]Sn{Ia§fpw I¬sh³j³ \nÝbn¨p. cWvSmbncmamtWvSmsS BtKmf lcnXKrlhmXI hym]\w 1990 se \nebnte¡p Ipdbv¡Wsa¶Xmbncp¶p 1992  s{^bnwhÀ¡v I¬h³j³ H¸phbv¡pt¼mÄ \nÝbn¨ncp¶Xv. F¶m Hcp Xocqam\¯nse¯m³ hoWvSpw A©phÀjw thWvSnh¶p.

P¸m\nse tIymt«m \Kc¯n 1997 Unkw_À 11 \v tNÀ¶ s{^bnwhÀ¡v I¬h³jsâ aq¶maXv D¨tImSn lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀP\w Ipd¨psImWvSphcp¶Xn\pÅ Hcp BtKmf \S]Sn{Ia¯n\p cq]w \ÂIn. Cu \S]Sn{IaamWv tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mÄ F¶ t]cn Adnbs¸Sp¶Xv. t{]mt«mt¡mfnsâ A\p_Ôw H¶n DÄs¸Sp¯nbn«pÅ 37 hnIknX cmPy§Ä 2008 \pw 2012 Unkw_À 31 \pw CSbn lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀP\\nc¡v 1990þ teXn \n¶v 5.2 iXam\w IWvSv Ipdbv¡Wsa¶XmWv tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mfnse {][m\ hyhØ. s{^bnwhÀ¡v I¬h³j\n H¸ph¨ cmPyamsW¦nepw tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mfn AwKamIp¶Xv Atacn¡ \nckn¨p. s{^bnwhÀ¡v I¬h³jsâ NÀ¨Ifn ]s¦Sp¯v ImemhØmhyXnbm\ NÀ¨IfpsS KXn \nÀ®bn¡pIbpw AtXkabw lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀP\w Ipdbv¡p¶Xn\pÅ \nba]camb _m[yXbn \n¶v HgnªpamdpIsb¶XpamWv Ipsd¡meambn Atacn¡ ]bäp¶ X{´w.

tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mÄ Atacn¡bpsS hymhkmbnI hfÀ¨sb XSbpsa¶pw C´y¡pw ssN\bv¡pw lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀP\w Ipdbv¡p¶Xn\pÅ \nba]camb _m[yX DÄs¸Sp¯nbn«nsöXpambncp¶p t{]mt«mt¡mÄ \nckn¡m³ Atacn¡ \nc¯nb \ymb§Ä. ]pd´Åp¶ lcnXKrlhmXI§fpsS 55 iXam\¯ns\¦nepw D¯chmZnIfmb k¼¶cmPy§Ä AwKoIcn¨m am{Xsa tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mÄ \nehn hcnIbpÅp F¶mbncp¶p \n_Ô\. t{]mt«mt¡mfn\v 2004 sk]väw_dn djy AwKoImcw \ÂInbtXmsS Cu \n_Ô\ \S¸nembn. 2005 s^{_phcnbn tIymt«m \Kc¯n \S¶ Hcp NS§n h¨v H¸phbv¡s¸«v GgphÀj¯n\ptijw tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mÄ \nehn h¶p. H¶mw tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mÄ 2012 Unkw_À 31 \v Ahkm\n¨p. Cu t{]mt«mt¡mfnsâ cWvSmw L«w 2013 P\phcn H¶papX 2020 Unkw_À 31 hscbpÅ ASp¯ F«phÀjt¯¡v \S¸m¡m\mWv tZml ImemhØm kt½f\¯nsâ Xocpam\w.

lcnXKrlhmXI§Ä ]pd´Åp¶Xnsâ Afhv Ipdbv¡m³ aq¶pXcw ]²XnIÄ tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mÄ hn`mh\w sNbvXn«pWvSv. Cu aq¶p Xcw ]²XnIfpw tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mfnsâ cWvSmw L«¯nepw XpScpw. k¼¶ cmPy§Ä X½nepÅ ImÀ_¬ hn]W\w AYhm Fanj³ t{SUnwKv, Cu cmPy§Ä X½n \S¸m¡p¶ kwbpà]²XnIÄ F¶nhbn k¼¶cmPy§Ä¡mWv ]¦mfn¯w. k¼¶ cmPy§Ä ]mhs¸« cmPy§fn \S¸m¡p¶ ip²hnIk\ ]²XnIÄ. lcnXlrlhmXI§Ä DbÀ¶tXmXn ]pd´Åp¶ cmPy§Ä¡v Chsb Ipdª Afhn ]n´Åp¶ cmPy§fn \n¶pw AhcpsS an¨w ]Ww sImSp¯phm§mw. CXns\bmWv ImÀ_¬ hn]W\w F¶phnfn¡p¶Xv. C§s\ Xmgv¶ Afhn aen\oIcWw \S¯p¶ cmPy§fn \n¶pw AhcpsS an¨w ]Ww ISw sImSp¯phm§p¶Xns\ "ImÀ_¬ hn]W\w' AYhm "NqSpÅhmbphnsâ I¨hSw' F¶p hnfn¡p¶p. C§s\ Xmgv¶ Afhn aen\oIcWw \S¯p¶ cmPy§fn \n¶pw an¨w hm§p¶ cmPy§Ä¡v DbÀ¶ Afhn Xs¶ XpSÀ¶pw aen\oIcWw \S¯mw. tkmhnbäv bqWnbsâ XIÀ¨tbmsS djy, Dss{I³ XpS§nb cmPy§fpsS lcnXKrlhmXIhnkÀÖ\w 1990 se tXmXnt\¡mÄ hfsc¯msgbmWv. Cu cmPy§Ä¡v 2012 HmsS lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀP\w 50 iXam\¯ntesd¡q«n ØncXbnse¯n¡m³ tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mÄ A\paXn \ÂInbn«pWvSv. djy¡v ImÀ_¬ UtbmIvsskUv hnkÀP\w 50 iXam\hpw Dss{I\v 120 iXam\hpw hÀ[n¸n¡mw. F¶m \nÀ±njvS \nc¡nepÅ hymhkmbnI hfÀ¨ t\Sm³ Cu cmPy§Ä¡v km[n¡m¯Xn\m an¨apÅ lcnXKrlhmXIhnkÀP\mhImiw Bhiy¡mcmb aäv cmPy§Ä¡v ]Ww sImSp¯p hm§mw. hm§p¶ AsX AtX Afhn lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀP\w \S¯m³ k¼¶cmPy§Ä¡v AhImiapWvSmbncn¡pw.

h\h¡cW¯neqsSbpw h³tXmXn tXm«hnfIfpw h³hr£§fpw \«phfÀ¯n Irjn `qan ]cnhÀ¯\w sN¿p¶XneqsSbpw A´co£¯n \n¶pw h³tXmXn ImÀ_¬ UtbmIvsskUv hen¨Sp¯v Ahsb hr£§fnepw a®nepw ap¡nhbv¡p¶ ImÀ_¬ kn¦v ]²XnIfpw ImÀ_¬ hn]W\¯nsâ `mKamWv. h\h¡cW¯neqsSbpw tXm«hnfIrjnbneqsSbpw hens¨Sp¡p¶ Hmtcm S¬ ImÀ_Wn\pw Xpeyamb Afhn aen\oIcWw \S¯m³ ]Ww apS¡p¶ cmPy§Ä¡pw I¼\nIÄ¡pw AhImiapWvSv. cWvSmasXmcp cmPy¯v \S¸m¡p¶ ]²XnIÄ¡v BZys¯ cmPy¯n\v s{IUnäv AhImis¸Sp¶ ]²XnIfmWv kwbpàambn \S¸m¡p¶ ]²XnIfpw knUnFw ]²XnIfpw. lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀP\w Ipdbv¡m³ \nba]camb _m[yXbpÅ k¼¶cmPy§Ä X½nemWv kwbpà]²XnIÄ \S¸m¡p¶Xv. knUnFw ]²XnIÄ \S¸m¡p¶XmIs« hnIkzccmPy§fnepw. kmaqlnIh\h¡cW¯n\pw tXm«hnfIrjn¡pw aäpambn hnIkzccmPy§fn knUnFw ]²XnIÄ F¶ t]cn k¼¶cmPy§Ä¡v ]Ww apS¡mw. knUnFw ]²XnIÄ hens¨Sp¡p¶ Hmtcm S¬ ImÀ_Wn\pw Xpeyamb Afhn aen\oIcWw \S¯m³ k¼¶cmPy§Ä¡v A\phmZapWvSv.

tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mÄ ASp¯ F«phÀjt¯¡qIqSn \o«p¶XpsImWvSv Cu ]²XnIsfÃmw t{]mt«mt¡mfnsâ cWvSmw L«¯nepw XpScpw. F¶m t{]mt«mt¡mfnsâ cWvSmw L«¯nepw Atacn¡ ]¦mfnbmIp¶nÃ. P¸m³, Im\U, djy, \yqkne³Uv XpS§nb cmPy§fpw CXn ]¦mfnIfmIp¶nÃ. C´ybpw ssN\bpw hnIkzccmPy§fmbXn\m tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mfn ]tWvS AwK§fÃ. bqtdm]y³ bqWnb³ AwKcmPy§Ä, Hmkvt{Senb, t\mÀsh, kznävkzÀ³Uv XpS§nb GXm\pw cmPy§Ä am{XamWv t{]mt«mt¡mfnsâ cWvSmw L«¯n ]¦mfnIfmImsa¶v k½Xn¨n«pÅXv. BtKmf lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀP\¯nsâ 15 iXam\w am{XamWv tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mfnsâ cWvSmwL«¯n ]s¦Sp¡p¶ cmPy§fpsS kw`mh\. t{]mt«mt¡mÄ ASp¯ F«phÀjt¯¡p IqSn \o«m³ tZml kt½f\w Xocpam\n¨psh¦nepw BtKmf lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀP\w Ipdbv¡p¶Xn CXv Hcp hn[¯nepw klmbIamhnÃ. tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mfn hn]Wnsb A[njvTnXam¡n \S¸m¡p¶ hnhn[ ]cn]mSnIÄ bYmÀ°¯n lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀP\s¯ Hcphn[¯nepw Ipdbv¡nsö Bt£]hpw Bcw`w apXsebpWvSv. aen\hnapàamb DuÀPt{kmXkpIÄ hnIkn¸n¡p¶Xn\p]Icw hymhkmbnI cmPy§fpsS h³tXmXnepÅ aen\oIcWs¯ XpSÀ¶pw t{]mÕmln¸n¡p¶hbmWv Cu ]cn]mSnIÄ. BtKmf Xm]\s¯ XSbWsa¦n lcnXKrlhmXI§Ä ]pd´Åp¶Xnsâ Afhv 60 iXam\w IsWvS¦nepw Ipdbv¡Ww. F¶m tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mfnsâ e£yw hfsc ]cnanXamWv. klPamb IpdhpIÄ ImcWw t{]mt«mt¡mÄ hn]coX^eamWv krjvSn¨Xv. t{]mt«mt¡mÄ \nehn h¶Xn\p tijhpw lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀP\¯n Hcp IpdhpapWvSmbnsöp am{XaÃ, adn¨v hÀ[n¡pIbmWpWvSmbXv. 2000 \pw 2009 \panSbn BtKmf lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀP\w 12.4 iXam\w IWvSv hÀ[n¨p. Atacn¡bpsS lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀP\w 1990  4876 Zie£w S®mbncp¶Xv 2008  5461 Zie£w S®mbn IqSn. tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mÄ {]Imcw 1990þse \nc¡nt\¡mÄ BdpiXam\w IWvSv lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀP\pw Ipdbv¡m³ _m[yXbpWvSmbncp¶ Im\UbpsS \nc¡v Ipdbp¶Xn\p ]Icw 12 iXam\w IWvSv hÀ[n¨p. AtXkabw C´y, ssN\, {_ko XpS§nb cmPy§Ä kzta[bm kzoIcn¨ \S]SnIfneqsS lcnXKrl hmXI hnkÀP\ \nc¡v Ipdbv¡p¶Xn Imcyamb ]ptcmKXn ssIhcn¨p.

ImemhØm hyXnbm\w kw_Ôn¨ s{^bnwhÀ¡v I¬h³jsâ 13þmaXv D¨tImSn 2007 Unkw_dn Ct´mt\jybnse _menbn tNÀ¶t¸mÄ ImemhØm hyXnbm\w t\cnSp¶Xn\v "_men IÀ½]²Xn' F¶ t]cn Hcp ]cn]mSn¡v cq]w \ÂIn. tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mfnsâ cWvSmwL«¯n\p cq]w \ÂIm³ ASnb´c \S]SnIÄ kzoIcn¡Wsa¶Xmbncp¶p _menIÀ½ ]²Xnbnse {][m\ \nÀt±iw. tIymt«m t{]mt«mt¡mfn AwKaÃm¯ Atacn¡sbt¸mepÅ cmPy§fnse lcnXlrlhmXI hnkÀP\\nc¡pIpbvd¡m³ ZoÀLImem ASnØm\¯nepÅ AUvtlmIv hÀ¡nwKv I½nän¡pw _men IÀ½]²Xn cq]w \ÂIn. lcnXKrl hmXI hnkÀÖ\w Ipd¡m³ hnIkzccmPy§fpw kzta[bm \S]Sn kzoIcn¡Wsa¶pw AhÀ¡v AXn\pthWvS kmt¦XnIhnZybpw km¼¯nI klmbhpw \ÂIm³ k¼¶cmPy§Ä X¿mdmIWsa¶pambncp¶p asämcp \nÀt±iw. 2009 Ahkm\w tIm¸³tlK\n \S¶ 15þmw aXv ImemhØm kt½f\w BtKmf Xm]\nebnse hÀ[\hv cWvSp Un{Kn skÂjykv IS¡p¶Xv XSbm³ ASnb´c \S]SnIÄ kzoIcn¡Wsa¶v in]mÀisNbvXp. 2020 \ptijw \S¸mt¡WvS ZoÀLIme \S]SnIfmbncp¶p 2011  Z£nWm{^n¡bnse UÀ_\n \S¶ ImemhØm kt½f\¯nsâ NÀ¨m hnjbw. 2013 Unkw_dn t]mfWvSnse hmÀtkmbn ASp¯ ImemhØm kt½f\w \S¡pt¼mgpw 1992 se dntbm `uaD¨tImSnbn AhXcn¸n¨ AtX hnjb§Ä ]cnlmcanÃmsX Ahtijn¡p¶p. Hmtcm ImemhØm kt½f\¯nepw kp{][m\ hnjb§Ä ASp¯ kt½f\¯n NÀ¨ sN¿mw F¶ hnjb¯n am{XamWv temIcmPy§Ä ¡nSbn A`n{]mb sFIyapWvSmIp¶Xv. A´co£¯nte¡p ]pd´Åp¶ lcnXKrlhmXI§fpsS Afhn Ipdhp hcp¯m\pÅ kab{Iaw 2020 hsc \o«m\mbn F¶XmWv tZml ImemhØm kt½f\¯nsâ _m¡n]{Xw. a\pjycminbpsS `mhn Xs¶ A]IS¯nem¡nbncn¡p¶ C¯csamcp kp{][m\ {]iv\¯n 1992 ap cWvSp]XnämWvSpIfmbn NÀ¨ \S¯nbn«pw cmPym´c kaql¯n\v F§psa¯nt¨cm\mbn«nsöXmWv Gähpw hnenb ZptcymKw. HmtcmhÀjhpw ImemhmØm kt½f\¯n temIkaqlw Gäphm§p¶ Iq«t¯mÂhn tZml ImemhØm kt½f\¯nepw BhÀ¯n¡pIbmbncp¶p.

C´ybnse P\§fpsS kmaqlnIþkm¼¯nI kpc£nXXz¯nepw ]cnØnXnbnepw Irjnbnepw hcpwhÀj§fn ImemhØm hyXnbm\w henb {]iv\§Ä krjvSn¡pw. C´y³ s\äv hÀ¡v t^mÀ ss¢aäv tN©v Akkvsaâv(sFF³knknF) cWvSphÀjw ap¼p \S¯nb hnebncp¯Â Irjn, Pew, {]IrXnhn`h§Ä, ssPhsshhn[yw F¶o taJeIfn henb {]XymLmX§fmWv {]hNn¨ncn¡p¶Xv. agsb B{ibn¨pÅ IrjnbpsS ]mcnØnXnImSn¯d ]msS XIcpw. ssN\, Atacn¡, djy, P¸m³, PÀ½\n, Im\U F¶o cmPy§Ä¡p ]n¶nembn BdmaXmWv. lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀP\¯n C´ybpsS Øm\w. AtX kabw Btfmlcn lcnXKrlhmXI hnkÀP\¯n \½psS Øm\w (1.52 S¬ ImÀ_¬ UtbmIvsskUv) 122þm aXv am{XamWv BtKmf ImemhØmhyXnbm\s¯ XSªp\nÀ¯m³ A[nI kabsam¶pw temIkaql¯n\p ap¶n Ahtijn¨n«nÃ. AanXamb D]t`mKXrjvWsb Xr]vXns¸Sp¯p¶ PohnXssienIfn \n¶pw A\nb{´nXamb ]cnØnXn aen\oIcW¯n \n¶pw ]n³hm§nbnsæn A\nhmcyamb Zpc´ambncn¡pw a\pjycminsb Im¯ncn¡p¶Xv.



th\ NqSn tImgnIÄ¡pw IcpXÂ

tImgnIÄ¡v kkpJw hmgm³ ]änb A´co£ Xm]\ne 18þ22 Un{Kn skÂjykmWv. Xm]\ne 28þ35 Un{Kn skÂjykv F¶ ]cn[nbn hcpt¼mÄ NqSpsImWvSpÅ k½À±w Hgnhm¡m³ imcocnI {]hÀ¯\§fn hyXymkw hcp¶p.
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Xangv\m«n \n¶p ]¨¡dnsb¯p¶Xv IgpInbm t]mIm¯ hnjhpambn

ho«n ]¨¡dnbpWvSm¡mw, A[zm\hpw ]Ws¨ehpapsWvS¦nepw hnjw Ignt¡WvStÃm?
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aªÄ: kuµcy hÀ[\hn\pw tcmK{]Xntcm[¯n\pw

ho«½ aebmfnbmtWm F¦n aªÄs¸mSnbpsS Sn³ AhcpsS ASp¡fbnse ]ehyRvP\¡q«¯nse {]Ya AwKambncn¡pw. aªÄs¸mSnbnÃmsX F´p ]mNIw? hn`hw shPntädnbt\m t\m¬þshPntädnbt\m BIs«, AXn\v BIÀjWobX \ÂIp¶Xv aªfmWv.
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DXv]mZ\¯n\pw hn]W\¯n\pw sdUnbmbn \oc

sX§n \n¶v \ocbpw \ocbpXv]¶§fpw DXv]mZn¸n¡m\pÅ tIcf kÀ¡mcnsâ \nbat`ZKXn s^{_phcn 14 \v hnÚm]\ambn. 112 hÀj§Ä¡p tijw Xncp¯n¡pdn¡s¸«XmWv Cu {]Jym]\w. apJya{´n D½³NmWvSn amÀ¨v cWvSn\v tIm«b¯v \ocbpw \ocbpXv]¶§fpw ]pd¯nd¡pIbpw
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\à ]¨¡dnt¯m«¯n\v Bkq{XWw

hoSpIfn ]¨¡dnt¯m«samcp¡pt¼mÄ imkv{Xobamb ¹m\nwKv DsWvS¦n Hmtcm C©v Øehpw D]bpàam¡p¶Xn\pw IoSþtcmK§Ä Hs«ms¡ Ipdbv¡phm\pw km[n¡pw. tXm«¯n\v `wKn \ÂIp¶tXmsSm¸w anI¨ hnfhpw e`yamIp¶p.
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an\nskäv kmt¦XnIhnZy tN\bnepw Im¨nenepw

[m\yhnfIfpw, ]bdphnfIfpw Ignªm aebmfnbpsS {][m\ `£yhnfbmWv Ing§phÀK§Ä. sshhn[yamÀ¶ a®nepw ImemhØbnepw hfcp¶ Ing§phÀK hnfIÄ, [m\yhnfItf¡mÄ A[nIw hnfhpw DuÀPhpw \ÂIp¶p. Ing§phÀKhnfIÄ¡v hfsc Imcy£aambn
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NocbpsWvS¦n tNmc\¶mIpw, apcn§bptWvS acp¶pthWvS

IrjnbneqsS kt´mjn¡mw. apähpw ]cnkchpw ip²nbpw shSn¸pw \ndbv¡mw. amen\y§Ä Hgnhm¡n hr¯nbm¡mw. F´pthWsat¶m? Nne IrjnIÄ \S¸m¡mw.\à Nocbne¡dn Iq«nbm \½psS tNmc \à ip²ambn \ne\nev¡pw.
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tcmKnIÄ¡pthWvSn ssPh]¨¡dn

NnInÕbvs¡m¸w tcmKnIÄ¡v hnjanÃm¯ `£Ww IqSn \ÂIpIbmWv XriqÀ Aae saUn¡Â tImfPv. Bip]{Xnbnse¯p¶ Bbnc¡W¡n\v tcmKnIÄ¡v kuP\yambn `£Ww \ÂIm³ hn`h§Ä F¯p¶Xv Bip]{Xn hf¸nse ssPh ]¨¡dnt¯m«¯n \n¶v.
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ImÀjnI kÀhIemimebn \n¶v kq¸À amÀ¡änte¡v

hn¯pw hf§fpw IoS\min\nIfpw am{Xw hnÂ]\ \S¯ns¡mWvSncp¶ Imhp§Â GP³knbn \n¶v ImÀjnI kq¸ÀamÀ¡äv F¶ coXnbnte¡pÅ Imhp§Â GP³knbpsS hfÀ¨ A{Knþ _nkn\knsâ thdns«mcp apJamWv Im«n¯cp¶Xv.
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Cd¨nt¡mgnIfpsS Xoä{Iaw

t{_mbneÀ tImgn¡pªp§Ä¡v cWvSp Xc¯nepÅ XoäbmWv \ÂtIWvSXv, t{_mbneÀ ÌmÀ«dpw t{_mbneÀ ^n\njdpw. BZys¯ aq¶mgvN ÌmÀ«À tdj³ sImSp¡Ww. CXn IqSpX amwkyw AS§nbncn¡p¶Xn\m s]s«¶pÅ hfÀ¨bv¡v klmbn¡p¶p.
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tX³Imew: aps¶mcp¡§Ä

tIcf¯n tX\o¨ hfÀ¯en\pÅ A\´amb km[yXIÄ {]tbmP\s¸Sp¯m³ bphm¡fpw kzm{ibkwL§fpw tX\o¨IÀjIcpw Hcpt]mse Xbmdmbns¡mWvSncn¡p¶ kabamWv tX³ Imew. 1990 Ifn `mcX¯nse sX¡³ kwØm\§fmb tIcfw, Xangv\mSv, B{Ô, IÀ®mSI F¶nhnS§fn ....
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hÀ®hnkvabambv Ipªn X¯IÄ

temIsa¼mSpapÅ ]£nt{]anIfpsS lrZb¯n H¶mw Øm\w ssIbS¡p¶ AcpaIfmWv _UvPokv F¶p hnfn¡s¸Sp¶ _UvPdnKdpIÄ (Budgerigars). euhv t_Uvkv F¶ Hma\t¸cn \½psS \m«nepw ChÀ kp]cnNnXcmWv Hmkvt{Senb¡mcmb....
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sNdphůnse ]q¡Ä

\oWvSv hmfpt]mepÅ CeIÄ tNÀ¶v Hcp t_m«nsâþsNdphůnsâþBIrXnbnembncn¡p¶p. Cu sNdphůn Ccn¡p¶Xpt]mse ]q¡sf {]IrXn Xs¶ {IaoIcn¨ncn¡p¶p. C{Xbpambm Cu sNSn¡v t_m«v enÃn F¶ÃmsX F´v t]cp \ÂInbmWp hnfn¡pI?
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aÕyIrjnbneqsS kp{]nb\v t\«§Ä am{Xw

ChnsS \nXyhr¯n¡v hItXSnbpÅ ]c¡w]m¨nen Cu aÕys¯mgnemfn F¯nt¨À¶Xv XnI¨pw BZmbIcamb aÕyIrjnbnte¡v. \oWvSIc ]¶bv¡Â Xpcp¯n _tYÂ`h\¯n kp{]nb\mWv henb apXÂapS¡nÃmsX aÕyIrjnbneqsS t\«§Ä sIm¿p¶Xv.
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ImÀjnI taJebpsS ]p\cp²mcW¯n\v A{Kn _nkn\kv

Irjnsb¸än ]dbpt¼mÄ `qcn]£w t]cptSbpw \mhn \n¶pw ]cm[o\XIfpw ]cmXnIfpw am{XamWv tIÄ¡mdpÅXv. Irjn \ãamWv, Hcp sskUv _nkn\kv am{Xamtb \S¯m³ Ignbq, IÀjI³ F¶pw IS¡mc\mWv C§s\ t]mIp¶p Irjntb¸än s]mXpthbpw Nne IÀjIcptSbpw at\m`mh§Ä.
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kÀPphnsâ tXm«¯n hnfbp¶Xv Atd_y³ I¡ncn

Atd_y³ Zmlia\n Atd_y³ I¡ncn Irjn ]co£n¨p hnPbw t\SpIbmWp amtems¯ kÀPp Iqhbv¡Â. NqSpIme¯p Atd_y³ cmPy§fn Zmlia\nbmbn D]tbmKn¡p¶ I¡ncn hÀK¯nÂs¸« Zmlia\n kÀPp ]co£WmSnØm\¯nemWp Irjn XpS§nbXv.
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sX¦cbn Xoä]pÂIrjn kPohw

a®mÀ¡ms« sX¦cbnepw ]cnkc{]tZi§fmb A¼wIShv, A¼wIp¶v, ]p©t¡mSv, taemapdn `mK§fnepw Xoä]pÂIrjn hym]Iambn. ]ip¡Ä¡pw aäpw Bhiyamb ]pÃv ho«n Xs¶ hfÀ¯pI F¶ £ochnIk\ hIp¸nsâ ]²Xn{]ImcamWv ]pÂIrjn hym]Iam¡nbncn¡p¶Xv.
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ssltd©n Im¸n ]q¯p; IÀjIÀ {]Xo£bnÂ

XmfwsXänb ImemhØbpw ImÀjnI DXv]¶§fpsS hnfhpIpdhpw hne ØncXbnÃmbvabnepw \«w Xncnbp¶ IÀjIÀ¡v {]Xo£bqWÀ¯n ssltd©n Im¸n ]q¯p.
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sFizcyw sImWvSph¶ BSv

IpSpw_{io \S¸m¡nb BSp{Kmaw ]²Xnbn amXrIm]camb hnPbw t\Snb kpPmXsb ]cnNbs¸Sp¶Xv BSp hfÀ¯p¶ hÀ¡pw hfÀ¯m\m {Kln¡p¶ hÀ¡pw D]Imc {]Zambncn¡pw. BSphfÀ¯en kpPmXbv¡p ap³]cnNbsam¶panÃmbncp¶p.
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]¨acp¶pIfpsS Ip¯I AhImiw hn]W\w sN¿s¸SWw

`mcX¯nse Huj[kkytaJebn Gähpw IqSpX KthjW§Ä \S¯nbn«pÅ Hcp hyànbmWv tUm. ]pjv]mwKZ³. sImïv k_v cPnkv{Smdmbncp¶ sI. ]p¸phntâbpw A[ym]nIbmbncp¶ sI. ao\m£nbptSbpw F«pa¡fn Cfbh\mbn 1944  ]pjv]mwKZ³ P\n¨p.
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\ap¡psamcp¡mw ho«nsemcp ]¨¡dnt¯m«w

]pXnb hÀj¯nse ]p¯³ {]Xo£Ifpambn apt¶dns¡mWvSncn¡pIbmWv. ImÀjnIcwKs¯ ]p¯³ ImgvN¸mSpIÄ¡pw \ho\ Bib§Ä¡pw ImtXmÀ¡pIbmWv tIcf¯nse IÀjI kaqlw. F¶m bpF³ `£yImÀjnI kwLS\bpsS {]Jym]\w \mtahtcbpw Nn´n¸n¡p¶ H¶mbn amdnbncn¡pIbmWv.
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]mhen \n¶v 14 tImSn

IrjnIÄ ]eXpsWvS¦nepw ]mhÂIrjnbnembncp¶p \S¯dbpsS kz]v\hnPbw. IpSpw_{io apt¶m«ph¨ kwLIrjn ]²Xnbn AWntNÀ¶v AZv`pXw Im«pIbmbncp¶p ChnS¯pImÀ. s]¬Icp¯nsâ ImÀjnIs¸cpa XoÀ¡p¶ a¦amÀ¡nSbn kwØm\¯pXs¶ H¶maXmWv
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dq«v s{Sbv\À d_ÀssX _ÍnwKpw aäp ]cn]me\ apdIfpw

I¸n hfÀ¯nsbSp¡p¶ Xmbvs¨SnIÄ¡v Hcp amkw {]mbsa¯p¶tXmsS _ÍnwKv {]{Inb Bcw`n¡mhp¶XmWv. Hcp X«neIÄ am{Xw hfÀ¨ F¯nb Cfw Xmbvs¨SnIsf _ÍnwKn\v hnt[bam¡p¶Xns\ bwKv_ÍnwKv F¶mWv hnh£n¡s¸Sp¶Xv.
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AÀ°\....{]mÀ°\

]qt¦mgnIqhpw apt¼ IÀjI\pWcpw. A§v BImi¯n Xnf§n\n¡p¶ s]cpao\mWv Ahsâ IWn. hcp¶ {]`mXw awKfIcamItW F¶h³ B ssNX\ys¯ t\m¡n {]mÀ°n¡p¶p. ]ns¶bmWp {]`mXIÀa§Ä. sh«whogpwapt¼ Ah³ IrjnbnS¯nse¯pw. AXp hbemIs«,
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A\y\m«n N¡bv¡p {]nbtadp¶p

\m«n Ct¸mÄ N¡bpsS hk´Imew. F¶mÂ, Cu taJebnepw A\ykwØm\¡mÀ ]nSnapdp¡nbtXmsS thhn¡m³t]mepw \m«nent¸mÄ N¡ In«m¯ AhØbmWv. N¡bpw N¡¸ghpw N¡¡pcphpw HcpImeL«¯n aebmfnIfpsS hni¸Iänsb¦nepw C¶v A\ykwØm\¡mcmWp Bhiy¡mÀ Gsdbpw.
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sslt{Umt]mWnIvkv: C\n a®nÃmsXbpw Xoä¸p hfÀ¯mw

tIcfw t]mse P\km{µX hfsc IqSnb {]tZi§fn IÀjIsc £oc taJebn \n¶pw ]n´ncn¸n¡p¶ {][m\ LSI§fmWv ]¨¸pÃnsâ e`yX¡pdhv, Xoä¸p hfÀ¯m\pÅ Øe]cnanXn, DbÀ¶ Xoäs¨ehv F¶nh. Idh¸ip¡fpsS BtcmKy¯n\pw ]mepXv]mZ\¯n\pw AXy´mt]£nXamWv ]¨¸pÃv.
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\mS³ I¶pImenIsf ]pXpXeapdbv¡p ]cnNbs¸Sp¯n I]ne s^Ìv

sImbvsXmgnª ]mS§fnepw hnP\amb ]md¸c¸pIfnepw a®n\p hfambn NmWIhpw aq{Xhpw Zm\ambn \ÂIn Ae£yambn taªp\S¶ncp¶ \mS³ I¶pImen¡q«§Ä ]pXnb Xeapdbv¡v HmÀabmbn. CsXÃmw Cu Xeapdbv¡p ]dªptI« IYIÄ am{Xw.
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kbmaokpw A_nÊo\nb\pw

\oe \nd¯nepÅ at\mlcamb I®pItfmSpIqSnb Ch Xmbve³Unse cmPsIm«mc¯n hmWncp¶ ]q¨IfpsS ]n³KmanIfmWv. ]Xns\«mw \qämWvSn Chsb Cw¥WvSnte¡pw Atacn¡bnte¡pw sImWvSph¶p. P\n¡pt¼mÄ XqshÅ \ndapÅ ]q¨¡p«nIÄ hmepXmIpt¼mÄ a§nb
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AZriyamIp¶pthm, Zi]pjv]§Ä

`mcXob kwkvImc¯nsâ Gähpw {]apJamb kw`mh\Ifnsem¶mWv BbpÀthZw. {]IrXnbpsS hcZm\ambn IW¡m¡s¸Sp¶ BbpÀthZw, C¶v \nehnepÅ sshZyimkv{X taJeIfn sh¨v Gähpw ]g¡tadnbXmWv. AYÀhthZ¯nsâ D]thZambn ]cnKWn¡s¸Sp¶ BbpÀthZw.....
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{]IrXn \nb{´n¡p¶ Irjn

C\n, C´y¡v A`nam\n¡m\pw hIbpWvSv. 1762  \½psS ssa\sb audojyknte¡v Ibän Ab¨Xv AhnsS hym]n¨ Nph¶ sh«pInfnsb Xn¶p XoÀ¡m\mWv (sh«pInfn F¶Xv Hcp InfnbÃ. hn«nÂ/]¨¯pų Asæn ae_mdn X¯½pÅv BWv ....
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