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Imthcn shÅw hoWvSpw NqSp]nSn¡pt¼mÄ

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kwØm\ ]cyS\w / kn.sI. Ipcym¨³

Imthcnbn ]pXnb XÀ¡w apdpIp¶p. C¡pdn sas¡Zm¯p AWs¡«ns\s¨mÃnbmWp IÀWmSIhpw Xangv\mSpw sIm¼ptImÀ¡p¶Xv. Imthcn shÅw NqSp]nSn¡m³ XpS§p¶XpXs¶ t]Sns¸Sp¯p¶ hnjbamWv. 1991 se Iem]¯nsâ HmÀaIfpÅhcpsS a\kn `oXnbpsS \ngem«w XpS§n¡gnªp.

IÀWmSIbpsSbpw Xangv\mSnsâbpw Poh\mUnbmWp Imthcn \Zn. AXpsImWvSpXs¶ Cu \Znbnse shÅw ]¦nSp¶Xv CcpkwØm\§Ä¡pw sshImcnI {]iv\w IqSnbmWv. CcpkwØm\§fnsebpw e£¡W¡n\p IÀjIcpsS \ne\n¸ns\ _m[n¡p¶ {]iv\amWnXv. AXn\memWp \qämWvSp ]n¶n«n«pw Ct¸mgpw t]Sns¸Sp¯p¶ hnjbambn Imthcn \ZoPe XÀ¡w \ne\n¡p¶Xv.

BZyIcmÀ 1892Â

802 IntemaoäÀ \ofapÅ Imthcn \Znbnse Pe¯n\p \mep kwØm\§fmWv AhIminIÄ. IÀWmSI, Xangv\mSv, tIcfw, t]mWvSnt¨cn. CXn IÀWmSIbpw Xangv\mSpamWp {][m\ I£nIÄ. Imthcn \Zn¡p Xangv\m«n 44,016 NXpc{i IntemaoäÀ hrãn{]tZiapWvSv. IÀWmSIbn 34,273 NXpc{i Intemaoädpw tIcf¯n 2,866 NXpc{i IntemaoädpamWp Imthcn \ZnbpsS hrãn {]tZiw. \ZnbpsS 54 iXam\w hrãn{]tZihpw Xangv\m«nemWv. IÀWmSIbn 42 iXam\hpw tIcf¯n 3.5 iXam\hpw.

Imthcn \ZoPew ]¦nSp¶Xp kw_Ôn¨v BZy IcmdpWvSmIp¶Xv 1892 emWv. A¶s¯ a{Zmkv {]knU³knbpw ssakqÀ cmPyhpambmWv IcmdpWvSm¡nbXv. ]n¶oSv 1924 asämcp Icmdpw DWvSm¡n. F¶mÂ, Cu IcmÀ IÀWmSIbpsS XmÂ]cy§Ä¡p hncp²amsW¶p NqWvSn¡m«n XÀ¡w DSseSp¡pIbmbncp¶p. Imthcn \ZoPew Xpeyambn hoXn¡Wsa¶ hmZ¯n Xangv\mSv Dd¨p\n¡p¶p.

Imthcn \ZoPew {]Xo£n¨v 30 e£w G¡À Øe¯p X§Ä Irjn \S¯p¶psh¶mWp Xangv\mSnsâ hmZw. CXp XIÀ¶m e£¡W¡n\p IÀjIÀ \ncmew_cmIpsa¶pw Xangv\mSv NqWvSn¡m«p¶p. XÀ¡§Ä apdpIpIbpw a{Zmkv {]knU³knbpw ssakqÀ cmPyhpw X½n 1924  DWvSm¡nb IcmÀ 1974  ImelcWs¸SpIbpw sNbvXtXmsS CcpkwØm\§fpw X½n DSseSp¯ XÀ¡§Ä tImSXnIfnse¯n. 1990  kp{]ow tImSXnbpsS \nÀtZi {]Imcw tI{µ kÀ¡mÀ Imthcn \ZoPe XÀ¡ ss{S_ypW Øm]n¨p. 1970 apX Xangv\mSnsâ Bhiyambncp¶p CXv. 1990 Pq¬ cWvSn\mWv tI{µw Imthcn \ZoPe XÀ¡ ]cnlmc ss{S_yqW Øm]n¨p hnÚm]\w Cd¡nbXv.

ss{S_yqW 1991 PqWn CS¡me D¯chv ]pds¸Sphn¡pIbpw CXp Unkw_À 11\v hnÚm]\ambn Cd¡pIbpw sNbvXp. Xangv\mSn\v 250 SnFwkn (Xukâv aney¬ Iyp_nIv ^oäv) shÅw hn«psImSp¡Wsa¶Xmbncp¶p CS¡me D¯chv. F¶mÂ, CS¡me D¯chns\ IÀWmSIw FXnÀ¯p. XÀ¡w hoWvSpw \oWvStXmsS 1998 tI{µ kÀ¡mÀ ss{S_yqWensâ CS¡me D¯chv \S¸m¡p¶Xn\v Imthcn dnhÀ AtYmdn«n cq]hXvIcn¨p. ]n¶oSv 2002 A¶s¯ {][m\a{´n F._n. hmPvt]bn A[y£\mb Imthcn dnhÀ AtYmdn«n 0.8 SnFwkn shÅw Xangv\mSn\p hn«psImSp¡m³ D¯chmbn. F¶mÂ, Xangv\mSn\v CXp kzoImcyambncp¶nÃ. ]n¶oSv 2007 s^{_phcnbn Imthcn PeXÀ¡ ]cnlmc ss{S_yqW A´nahn[n {]Jym]n¨p.

Xangv\m«n\v 419 SnFwkn shÅhpw IÀWmSIbv¡v 270 SnFwkn shÅhpw \ÂIm\mbncp¶p ss{S_yqWensâ A´nahn[n. Xangv\mSn\p e`n¨ncp¶Xv 192 SnFwkn shÅambncp¶p. tIcf¯n\v 30 SnFwknbpw ]pXpt¨cn¡v Ggp SnFwkn shÅhpw e`n¡m³ AÀlXbpsWvS¶pw ss{S_ypW hn[nbn ]dªp. F¶mÂ, Cu hn[n \S¸m¡pI Ffp¸ambncp¶nÃ.

2012  {][m\a{´n a³taml³ knwKv Imthcn dnhÀ AtYmdn«n aoänwKv hnfns¨¦nepw {]iv\w ]cnlcn¡s¸«nÃ. 2013 hoWvSpw ss{S_yqW hn[n \S¸m¡m³ {ians¨¦nepw \S¶nÃ. ]n¶oSp kq¸Àsshkdn I½nän ]eh«w tbmKw tNÀs¶¦nepw {]iv\]cnlmcw \ofpIbmWv. CXn\nsSbmWp ]pXnb XÀ¡ambn sas¡Zm¯p AWs¡«v amdp¶Xv.

sas¡Zm¯p AWs¡«v

sas¡Zm¯phn Imthcn \Zn¡v AWsI«pI F¶Xp IÀWmSIbpsS ZoÀL\mfmbpÅ kz]v\amWv. sshZypXn DXv]mZ\hpw _mwKfqcn\p IpSnshÅhpw F¶XmWp sas¡Zm¯p AWs¡«psImWvSp e£yanSp¶Xv. agIpdhpÅt¸mÄ Cu AWs¡«nÂ\n¶p Xangv\mSn\p shÅwsImSp¡m\pw Ignbpsa¶mWp IÀWmSI apJya{´n kn²cma¿ ]dbp¶Xv. h\taJesb _m[n¡msX AWs¡«pWvSm¡msa¶XmWp sas¡Zm¯phnsâ sa¨w. IÀWmSIþ Xangv\mSv AXnÀ¯nbn 68 IntemaoäÀ kÀth \S¯m³ Xangv\mSv klIcn¡Wsa¶pw kn²cma¿ Bhiys¸Sp¶p.

sas¡Zm¯p AWs¡«v ]²Xnbpambn apt¶m«pt]mIpsa¶p apJya{´n kn²cma¿ IÀWmSI \nbak`bn C¡gnª 13\v AhXcn¸n¨ _Pän {]Jym]n¨p. {]mcw`sNehpIÄ¡mbn 25 tImSn cq]bpw \o¡nh¨p. ]²XnbpsS hniZamb ]²Xn tcJ (Un]nBÀ) Xbmdm¡p¶Xn\mbn I¬k«³knsb \ntbmKn¡p¶Xn\p Unkw_À 31\Iw At]£ kzoIcn¡psa¶v Pehn`h a{´n Fw._n. ]m«oepw {]Jym]n¨p.

AWs¡«ns\Xntc Xangv\mSv DWvSm¡p¶ hnhmZw cmjv{Sobt{]cnXamsW¶mWp kn²cma¿ ]dbp¶Xv. BZywapX Xangv\mSv hnhmZapWvSm¡pIbmWv. IÀWmSIbpsS Øe¯mWp sas¡Zm¯p AWs¡«v \nÀan¡p¶Xv. CXpsImWvSp Xangv\mSn\v bmsXmcp {]iv\hpapWvSmInÃ. F¶mÂ, cmjv{Sobem`¯n\pthWvSn AhÀ Cu hnjbw hnhmZam¡pIbmsW¶pw IÀWmSI apJya{´n ]dbp¶p. AWs¡«v hnjbw \nba]cambpw aäp amÀK§fneqsSbpw ssIImcyw sN¿m³ kÀ¡mcn\v Adnbmsa¶mWv At±lw Ignª Znhkw am[ya§tfmSp ]dªXv.

bp²ImemSnØm\¯n ]²Xn ]qÀ¯oIcn¡Wsa¶mWp ap³ apJya{´nIqSnbmb sPUnFkv t\Xmhv F¨v.Un. Ipamckzman Bhiys¸«Xv. Xangv\mSnsâ FXnÀ¸v hIhbv¡msX F´phnesImSp¯pw ]²Xnbpambn apt¶m«pt]mIWsa¶mWp \nbak`bn `cWþ{]Xn]£ FwFÂFamÀ Bhiys¸«Xv.

FXnÀ¸pambn Xangv\mSv

Imthcn \Znbn C\nbpw AWs¡«pWvSm¡n shÅw kz´am¡m\pÅ IÀWmSIbpsS Hcp \o¡hpw A\phZn¡nsö Dd¨ {]Jym]\hpambmWp Xangv\mSv sas¡Zm¯p AW¡«v ]²Xnsb FXnÀ¡p¶Xv. km[yamb FÃm coXnbnepw ]²Xn XSbm\mWp Xangv\mSv {ian¡p¶Xv. {]iv\¯n tI{µw CSs]SWsa¶pw AWs¡«p \nÀamW¯n \n¶p IÀWmSIsb XSbWsa¶pw Bhiys¸Sp¶ {]tabw Xangv\mSv \nbak` GIIWvTambn ]mkm¡n. {]iv\¯n {][m\a{´n \tc{µ tamZn CSs]SWsa¶p apJya{´n H. ]\oÀsiÂhw Bhiys¸«p.

hnhn[ IÀjI kwLS\IfpsS t\XrXz¯n IgnªZnhkw Xangv\m«n _µv \S¯pIbpw sNbvXp. tImb¼¯qÀ, Xncp¸qÀ, \oeKncn PnÃIfn _µv P\PohnXs¯ _m[n¨p. hml\§sfm¶pw \nc¯nend§nbnÃ. _wKfqcphnte¡p t]mIpIbmbncp¶ sIFkvBÀSnkn _kn\pt\sc ISeqÀ PnÃbn ItÃdpWvSmbn.

UnFwsI t\Xmhv Fw. IcpWm\n[n AWs¡«ns\Xntc iàambn cwKs¯¯nbn«pWvSv. {]iv\¯n `cWI£nbmb FUnFwsI ^e{]Zambn CSs]Sp¶nsöpw IcpWm\n[n Bt£]n¡p¶p. tI{µ¯n\p Is¯gpXnbm X§fpsS ISaIgnªpsh¶mWp kwØm\ kÀ¡mcnsâ \ne]mSv. F¶mÂ, IÀjIÀ kÀ¡mcnt\mSp £an¡nsöpw IcpWm\n[n IgnªZnhkw ]dªp. Ignª i\nbmgvN \S¶ _µn\p UnFwsI ]n´pW \ÂIpIbpw sNbvXp.

FwUnFwsI t\Xmhv ssht¡m iàamb {]t£m`§Ä¡mWv Blzm\w sNbvXncn¡p¶Xv. \tc{µ tamZn kÀ¡mÀ Xangv\mSns\ h©n¨ncn¡pIbmsW¶p ssht¡m {]Jym]n¨p. G{]n Ggn\p X©mhqcn a\pjy¨§e XoÀ¯p {]Xntj[n¡psa¶pw ssht¡m Adnbn¨n«pWvSv. Unkw_dn tI{µa{´n F¨v. A\´Ipamdnsâ ho«n a{´namcmb kZm\µ KuU, {]Imiv PmhtZ¡À F¶nhÀ tbmKwtNÀ¶p sas¡Zm¯p AWs¡«v bmYmÀYyam¡p¶Xp kw_Ôn¨p NÀ¨\S¯nsb¶pw ssht¡m Btcm]n¨p. CtX¡pdn¨p {][m\a{´n¡v AdnhpsWvS¶pw At±lw ]dbp¶p.

AWs¡«ns\Xntc FXnÀ¸v iàam¡p¶Xnsâ `mKambn Ignª Znhkw Xangv\mSv, ]pXpt¨cn kwØm\§fn \n¶pÅ temIvk`bnsebpw cmPyk`bnsebpw AwK§Ä {][m\a{´nsb IWvSncp¶p. FUnFwsI, UnFwsI, ]nFwsI, kn]nFw F¶o ]mÀ«nIfnse Fw]namcmWp sU]yq«n kv]o¡À Fw. X¼nZpsscbpsS t\XrXz¯n {][m\a{´nsb IWvSXv. Imthcn amt\Pvsaâv t_mÀUpw Imthcn hm«À sdKptej³ I½nänbpw cq]oIcn¡Wsa¶pw ChÀ Bhiy¸«p. tI{µkÀ¡mÀ {]iv\w Kuchambn ImWp¶nsömWp X¼nZpssc am[ya§tfmSp ]dªXv. IÀWmSI Imthcn ss{S_yqWensâbpw kp{]owtImSXnbpsSbpw hn[nIÄ ewLn¡pIbmWv. IpSnshůnsâ t]cp]dªp Imthcn\Znbn AWsI«m³ IÀWmSIbv¡v AhImiansöpw X¼n Zpssc ]dªp. {][m\a{´n {]iv\¯n CSs]Smsa¶v Dd¸p\ÂInsb¶mWv Fw]namÀ ]dbp¶Xv.

\Sp¡p¶Xv 1991se Iem]w

Imthcn \ZoPe¯nsâ t]cn 1991 IÀWmSIbnepWvSmb Iem]¯nsâ HmÀaIÄ {]iv\¯nsâ Kuchw hÀ[n¸n¡p¶p. 1991 Unkw_À Ahkm\amWp _wKfqcphnepw ssakqÀ, NmavcmPv\KÀ, amÞy PnÃIfnepw XangÀs¡Xntc Iem]w s]m«n¸pds¸«Xv. ssakqÀ PnÃbn am{Xw 348 {Kma§sf Iem]w _m[n¨p. Bbnc¡W¡n\p a\pjyscbmWp Iem]w ZpcnX]qÀWam¡nbXv. \nch[nt]À¡p Pohlm\nbpWvSmbn. hoSpIfpw hym]mcØm]\§fpw hml\§fpw Aán¡ncbmbn. \nch[n kv{XoIfpw Ip«nIfpw \njvTqcambn ]oUn¸n¡s¸«p. hkvXphIIÄ hym]Iambn sImÅbSn¡s¸«p.

t]meokv shSnhbv]nepw BfpIÄ acn¨p. \©t¦m«v am{Xw 11 Xangv\mSv cPnkvt{Sj³ temdnIfmWp I¯n¨Xv. XangÀ¡p 300 tImSn cq]bpsS \ãapWvSmsb¶p Xangv\mSv kÀ¡mÀ IW¡m¡n. Iem]s¯¡pdn¨v At\zjn¡m³ ]n¶oSv IÀWmSI kÀ¡mÀ PpUoj I½ojs\ \ntbmKn¨p. Iem]¯n\ncbmb 9576 t]À¡p \ã]cnlmcambn 2.04 tImSn cq] \ÂIm³ kp{]ow tImSXn D¯chnSpIbpw sNbvXp.

]n¶oSp ]et¸mgpw Imthcn \ZoPeXÀ¡¯nsâ t]cn Häs¸« {]Xntj[§Ä DWvSmbn«pWvSv. 2002 Xangv\mSn\p shÅw sImSp¡p¶Xn {]Xntj[n¨v I_\n AWs¡«n NmSn Hcp IÀjI³ Pohs\mSp¡nbncp¶p. C¯cw {]Xntj[§sfm¶pw Bfn¸ScmXncn¡p¶XmWv BizmkIcw. F¶mÂ, sas¡Zm¯p AWs¡«nsâ t]cn Ct¸mÄ CcpkwØm\§fpw Gäpap«en\p apXncpt¼mÄ e£¡W¡mb km[mcW¡mcpsS s\©n B[n DbcpIbmWv.

cmjv{Sob]mÀ«nIÄ {]iv\¯nÂ\n¶p apXseSp¸pIqSn e£yanSpt¼mÄ Imcy§Ä ssIhn«pt]mIptamsb¶mWp P\§Ä `b¡p¶Xv. AXn\m Ccp kwØm\§fntebpw tI{µ¯ntebpw `cWt\XrXzhpw cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«nt\Xm¡fpw Hcpan¨ncp¶p hn«phogvNtbmsS {]iv\§Ä ]cnlcn¡pIbmWp thWvSXv.


aX]cnhÀ¯\ \ntcm[\ \nbaw Bhiytam?

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tUm. amWn ]pXnbnSw

aX]cnhÀ¯\w A\mhiyamsW¶pw iàamb aX]cnhÀ¯\ \ntcm[\\nbaw cmPyw tXSp¶psWvS¶pw tI{µ B`y´ca{´n cmPv\mYvknwKv \yq\]£ I½oj\pIfpsS hmÀjnI tZiob kt½f\w \yqUÂln hnÚm³ `h\n DZvLmS\w sNbvXpsImWvSp {]Jym]n¨p. LÀ hm]kn t]mepff Imcy§fn kÀ¡mcn\v H¶pw sN¿m³ Ignªnsöpw AXn\p kaql¯nsâ ]n´pW thWsa¶pw At±lw Iq«nt¨À¯p. am{XaÃ, LÀ hm]knbpw aX]cnhÀ¯\ hncp² \nbahpw cmPys¯ \yq\]£§Ä NÀ¨sN¿Wsa¶pw B`y´ca{´n Bhiys¸«p.

{]Xy£¯n B`y´ca{´nbpsS {]kvXmh\ \yq\]£§sf c£n¡m\pÅ Xo{hamb B{Kl¯nsâ ^eamsW¶p tXm¶nt¸mhpw. AtXkabw Cu {]kvXmh\ `cWLS\mhncp²amsW¶ Imcyw Iq«¯n At±lw D¶bn¨ tNmZy§Ä shfnhm¡p¶p. A©p tNmZy§fmWp cmPv\mYvknwKv tNmZn¨Xv.

H¶maXmbn At±lw tNmZn¨Xp cmPy¯p aX]cnhÀ¯\w BhiyaptWvSm F¶mWv. `cWLS\m hyhØbpsS t\Àhn]coXamWv Cu tNmZyw. HcmÄ¡v CjvSapÅ aX¯n hnizkn¡m\pw AXp {]Ncn¸n¡m\pw CjvSapÅ aXw kzoIcn¡m\papÅ AhImiw `cWLS\ {]Zm\w sN¿p¶p. CXp a\xkm£nkzmX{´yamWv. Cu kzmX{´y¯n\ptaepÅ IS¶pIbäamWp aX]cnhÀ¯\ \ntcm[\w F¶Xn F´mWp kwibw? Xm³ P\n¨phfÀ¶ aX¯nÂ, {InkvXym\ntbm apkveotam lnµpthm Bbns¡mÅs«, ssZhm\p`hhpw kam[m\hpw e`n¡p¶nsæn AXp e`n¡p¶nS¯p tNcm³ Hmtcm `mcXob\pw AhImiapWvSv.

cWvSmas¯ tNmZyw aX]cnhÀ¯\¯nte¡p sImWvSpt]mhmsX kmaqlnI{]hÀ¯\w \S¯m³ Ignbntà F¶XmWv? aäp aXØcpsS {]hÀ¯\§fpsSta Icn\ng hogv¯p¶ tNmZyamWv CsX¶p hyàw. aZÀ sXtcksb Xmgv¯n¡mWn¡m³ taml³ `mKhXv \S¯nb {]kvXmh\tbmSp tNÀ¯pthWw CXp a\knem¡m³. aZÀ sXtck h¯n¡m\pambpw It¯men¡mk`bpambpw kpZrV _Ô¯nembncp¶psh¶pw AXn Ft´m ]´ntISpsWvS¶pw hcp¯n¯oÀ¡m³ kwL]cnhmÀ am[ya§Ä InWªp ]cn{ian¡p¶pWvSv. aZÀ sXtckbptSXp aXanÃm¯ Poh\Ãmbncp¶psh¶pw AhÀ ip²bmb It¯men¡m h\nXbmbncp¶psh¶pw sXfnbn¡m\pw X{Xs¸Sp¶Xp ImWmw. aZÀ sXtck It¯men¡mk`bpsS k\ymkn\n Bbncp¶psh¶Xv Bcpw Hfn¨phbv¡p¶ ImcyaÃ. X\n¡p e`n¨ ssNX\yw {InkvXphnÂ\n¶msW¶pw ZnhyImcpWy `ànbmWp Xsâ ssNX\y¯nsâ DdhnSsa¶pw \qdpXhW aZÀ Xs¶ ]dªn«pffXmWv. cmPyw `mcXcXv\w \ÂIn BZcn¨ aZÀ sXtcksb \bn¨ ssNX\yw Xncn¨dnbp¶hcn NneÀ AXn BIrjvTcmbn aX]cnhÀ¯\w \S¯p¶Xn `cWLS\mhncp²ambn H¶panÃ. h©\bpw `ojWnbpw _e{]tbmKhpw Im]Syhpw hgn \S¯p¶ aX]cnhÀ¯\s¯bmWp `cWLS\ FXnÀ¡p¶Xv. A§s\bpÅhcpsSta \S]SnsbSp¡p¶Xn\p \nbakwhn[m\w cmPy¯p \nehnepWvSpXm\pw.

B`y´ca{´nbpsS D¶w AsXm¶paÃ. taen sslµhcmcpw aXwamdcpXv. aäpÅhÀ lnµpaXw kzoIcn¨m AXp ho«nte¡pÅ Xncn¨pt]m¡mWv. F¶mÂ, sslµhaX¯nÂ\n¶p amdm³ a\pjysc t{]cn¸n¡p¶ LSI§sf IsWvS¯n Ah CÃmXm¡m\pÅ in]mÀiIsfm¶pw At±l¯n\p \ÂIm\panÃ. ZfnXcpw BZnhmknIfpsams¡ apkvenwþ ss{IkvXh aX§fnte¡v BIÀjn¡s¸«Xv F´psImsWvS¶p Ncn{Xadnbmhp¶hÀ¡p hyàamWv. AXncpIS¶ PmXnhyhØbn s]mdpXn ap«n, izmkw hnSm³ IgnbmsX, ASna¯¯nsâ Iqcncp«n IgnªhÀ¡p aäp aX§Ä {]ImitaInbt¸mÄ Ah³ AXns\ lrZbt¯mSp tNÀ¯p. ASna¯¯nsâ N§es]m«n¨p ØnXnkaXzhpw PmXnkaXzhpw ssIhcp¯p¶Xtà aX]cnhÀ¯\w XSbm\pÅ amÀKw?

aX]cnhÀ¯\w t{]mÕmln¸n¡msX aX¯n\v A`nhr²n {]m]n¡m³ ]mSntà F¶XmWp cmPv\mYvknwKnsâ aq¶mas¯ tNmZyw. aX¯nsâ A`nhr²n AwK§fpsS F®w Iq«p¶XnemsW¶ [mcWbnemWv B`y´ca{´n. F¶mÂ, FÃmhcpw A§s\ IcpXp¶nÃ. adn¨v B[ymßnI PohnX¯nsâ Bghpw ]c¸pw hÀ[n¸n¨v, kvt\lhpw IcpWbpw {]hln¨,v A]csâ IjvSXItfmSv A\pI¼bpw ip{iqjm at\m`mhhpw hÀ[n¸n¡p¶XnemWp icnbmb aXm`nhr²nsb¶mWp It¯men¡mk` ]Tn¸n¡p¶Xv. \hkphntijoIcWw ]p\xkphntijoIcWsas¶ms¡ k` ]dbpt¼mÄ {]kvXpX aqey§fpsS hfÀ¨bmWp e£yam¡p¶Xv. bqtdm¸nsâ ]p\xkphntijoIcWhpw GjybpsS kphntijoIcWhpsas¶ms¡bpÅ k`mkw_Ôamb Bib§Ä AtX]Sn DÄs¡mÅm³ kwL]cnhmÀ am[ya§Ä¡pw {]NmcIÀ¡pw IgnbnsöXmWp kXyw. Ahsbms¡ aX]cnhÀ¯\ Blzm\ambn«p am{XamWp Cu Iq«À a\knem¡p¶Xv.

tPm¬ t]mÄ cWvSma³ amÀ]m¸bpsS `mcXkµÀit¯mS\p_Ôn¨p Xo{h lnµp{]Øm\§Ä \S¯nb {]NmcWw ad¡mdmbn«nÃ. acW¯nsâ h¡nÂs¸«hÀ¡pw FbvUvkv tcmKnIÄ¡pw am\knIþ imcocnI sshIeyapÅhÀ¡pw hgnbm[mcambn ka\ne \jvSs¸«hÀ¡pw k` \ÂIp¶ ip{iqj GXp aX¯ntebv¡v Ahsc ]cnhÀ¯\w sN¿m³ thWvSnbmsW¶p kzbw tNmZn¡m³ kwL]cnhmÀ XbmdmIWw.

GsX¦nepsamcp cmPyw AXnsâ P\kwJybpsS ASnØm\\ne amdm³ A\phZn¡ptam F¶XmWv B`y´ca{´nbpsS \memas¯ tNmZyw. hmkvXh¯n At±lt¯mSp klX]n¡pItb \nhÀ¯nbpÅq. lnµp¡Ä am{XamWv At±l¯nsâ cmPy¯nsâ P\sa¶tà CXnsâ hymJymÀYw? 2020 BIpt¼mtg¡pw `mcXw k¼qÀW lnµpcmjv{SamIpsa¶ At±l¯nsâ ]mÀ«nbpsS t]mjI kwLS\bpsS t\Xmhv ]dªXpw B`y´ca{´n ]dbp¶Xpw H¶pXs¶. AXmbXv 2020  `mcX¯n apkvenapw ss{IkvXh\pw DWvSmhnÃs{X. Hcp aXm[njvTnX dn¸»nIv F¶ Bibw Xs¶bmWv C´y³ `cWLS\ sXm«p {]XnÚ sNbvX B`y´ca{´n a\kn Xmtemen¡p¶ Nn´sb¶Xn\p kwibw thWvS. bqtdm¸nsebpw Atacn¡bnsebpw P\m[n]Xy cmPy§fn GXp aXØÀ¡pw Xpey{]m[m\yhpw Øm\hpamWpÅXv. AhnsS ]ucXzw t\Sp¶ hntZinIÄ¡p kztZinIfmb P\¯nsâ AtX B\pIqey§Ä Xs¶ \ÂIs¸Sp¶p.

A©maXv Hcp tNmZyw IqSn cmPv\mYv knwKv tNmZn¡p¶pWvSv. C´ybn HgnsI temIsam«p¡pw aX]cnhÀ¯\ hncp²\nbaw sImWvSphcm³ \yq\]£§Ä Bhiys¸Sp¶psh¶v Adnbp¶ntÃsb¶XmWp tNmZyw. GXp cmPys¯ \yq\]£§fmWv C§s\ tNmZn¡p¶sX¶v At±lw ]dªnÃ. C´ybn \yq\]£§Ä aX]cnhÀ¯\hncp² \nba¯ns\XncmWv F¶XmWv At±l¯nsâ hnem]w. `cWLS\m hncp²amIbm AXp \S¸m¡m³ IgnbpIbnsöv At±l¯n\dnbmw. At¸mÄ F§s\sb¦nepw s]mXp kaql¯n {]kvXpX Nn´ hfÀ¯nsbSp¯p \S¸m¡m\pÅ KqtVmt±iyamWv At±l¯nsâ a\knepÅXv. CXp ]dbpt¼mgpw B`y´ca{´n FSp¯p]dbp¶ asämcp ImcyapWvSv. FÃm aX§fpapÅ temI¯nse Htc Hcp cmPyamWv C´y. Hmtcm aXhpw ]ckv]c _lpam\t¯msSbmWv ChnsS Ignbp¶sX¶pw Ckvemanse 72 hn`mK§fpw C´ybnepsWvS¶pw temI¯nse Gähpw ]g¡w sN¶ ss{IkvXh k`bpw C´ybnemsW¶pw At±lw shfns¸Sp¯n. F¦n ]ns¶ aXsshcyapWvSm¡n cmPy¯p `n¶XbpWvSm¡m³ {ian¡msX, Ac£nXmhØ krjvSn¡msX Hmtcm aXs¯bpw `cWLS\bv¡\pkrXambn AXnsâ hgn¡p hnSpIbtà \ÃXv?

hmkvXh¯n C´ybn \yq\]£ aX§sfs¡mWvSp ]ptcmKXnbÃmsX At[mKXn DWvSmbn«nÃ. shdpw 2.3 iXam\amWv C´ybn ss{IkvXhcpÅXv. cWvScbn \n¶p 2.3 iXam\¯nte¡p IpdªXÃmsX ss{IkvXh P\kwJy IqSnbn«nÃ. IpSpw_mkq{XWhpw IpSntbähpw hgnbmWv Cu Ipdhv kw`hn¨psImWvSncn¡p¶Xv. F¶mÂ, {]kvXpX 2.3 iXam\s¯s¡mWvSp s]mXpkaql¯n\v F{Xam{Xw \·bmWv e`n¡p¶sX¶v BÀ¡pw ZriyamWv. s]mXpkaql¯n\pthWvSn Xs¶bmWv ss{IkvXhk` F®aä coXnbn hnZym`ymkØm]\§fpw BXpcip{iqjm tI{µ§fpw kmt¦XnI hnZym`ymk Øm]\§fpw \S¯p¶Xv. ]mÀizhXvIcn¡s¸«hÀ¡pw FÃmhcmepw Dt]£n¡s¸«hÀ¡pambn \S¯s¸Sp¶ Øm]\§fn 10 iXam\wt]mepw ss{IkvXhcnsöXmWp kXyw. s]cphgnbn BcpanÃmsX Aeªp\S¡p¶ am\knItcmKnIsfbpw t]meokv sImsWvS¯n¡p¶Xp k`bpsS ImcpWyØm]\§fnemWv. AhÀ¡pthWvS NnInÕbpw acp¶pw ]cnNcWhpw \evIn kvt\l]qÀhw kwc£n¡p¶nSs¯Ãmw aX]cnhÀ¯\ e£yw Btcm]n¨p \nkzmÀY tkh\§sf XÅn¸dbp¶ at\m`mhw F´v Dt±iy¯nembmepw a\pjyXz¯n\p tNÀ¶XÃ. C§s\bpÅ kaqlw F§s\ cmPy¯n\p `ojWnbmhpw? \nbaapWvSm¡nbpw _e{]tbmKwhgnbpw ]oU\§Ä \S¯nbpw a\pjyhyànbpsS a\kns\ IogS¡m\mhnsöp aXXo{hhmZnIÄ Xncn¨dnbWw.

]p\xaX]cnhÀ¯\w hym]Iambn hÀKob hntZzj¯n\pw kwLÀj¯n\pw hgnsbmcp¡n. F¦nepw LÀ hm]knbpsS kq{X[mcIÀ Bkq{XWw sNbvX ]²XnIÄ Dt±in¨Xpt]mse ^ew IWvSnÃ. ss{IkvXh kaql§sfbmWv AhÀ e£yan«Xv. ss{IkvXhcmIs« kzXkn²amb ka\zb, A\pcRvP\ Nn´ItfmsS FÃmw t\m¡n¡mWm\ÃmsX Hcp {]tIm]\hpw DWvSm¡nbnÃ. adn¨v GsXmcp {InkvXym\n¡pw Häbvt¡m Iq«amtbm lnµphmIm\pÅ `cWLS\mkzmX{´ys¯ k` ehteiw `banÃmsX AwKoIcn¨p. {InkvXplrZb¯n kv]Àin¨hÀ càkm£nbmhpIbÃmsX hnizmkw XyPn¡pIbnsö kXyhpw {InkvXym\n ap¶n¡WvSp. LÀ hm]kn sImWvSp t\Sm³ Ignbm¯XmWp aX]cnhÀ¯\ \ntcm[\\nbawsImWvSp e£yanSp¶Xv.

kwL]cnhmdnsâ tIcfLSI§Ä Zim_vZ§Ä¡pap¼pXs¶ ss{IkvXh]oU\w Bcw`n¨ncp¶p. ss{IkvXhcn `n¶XbpÅhsc sXcªp]nSn¨p k`bvs¡Xncmb {]NmcW§Ä¡p sImgp¸pIq«n. ]Xn\mbnc¡W¡n\p k\ymkn\nIÄ kzmÀYteiat\y s]mXpkaql¯n\p ip{iqj sN¿p¶Xn\nSbn am\pjnI _elo\Xbn kw`hn¡p¶ Häs¸« hogvNIsf ]ÀhXoIcn¨p kaqls¯ XmdSn¨p ImWn¡p¶ coXn Xo{hlnµpXz am[ya§fpsS ]XnhmWv. I\ymkv{Xo aT§ÄXs¶ BhiyaptWvSm F¶mWp hnLS\hmZnIsfs¡mWvSp tNmZn¸n¨Xv. ]Ån s]mfn¨mepw ]Ånbn l\pam³ {]Xna {]XnjvTn¨mepw hr²bmb kaÀ¸nXsb am\`wKw sNbvXmepw AXns\ms¡ kwL]cnhmdn\p hniZoIcWapWvSv. AhsbÃmw sNbvXXv H¶pIn tamjvSm¡fmWv, Asæn km¯³ tkhIcmWv F¶v. km¯³ tkhIcmWp tZhmebm{IaW§Ä \S¯p¶sX¶v CubnsS IWvSp]nSn¨ kq{XamWv.

lnµpXz ]mÀ«nIfpsS Xe¸¯ncn¡p¶hcpsS {]kvXmh\IÄ \qdnc«n {]XnIcWamWp IogvLSI§fn Dfhm¡ns¡mWvSncn¡p¶Xv. {InkvXy³ tZhmeb§fpw apkvenw ]ÅnIfpw shdpw sI«nS§Ä am{XamsW¶pw Ah XIÀ¡mhp¶XmsW¶pw _nsP]n t\Xmhv kp{_ÒWy³ kzman {]kvXmhn¨p. ]ÅnIÄ {]mÀY\bv¡pÅ shdpw sI«nS§Ä am{Xw. Ah XIÀ¡p¶Xn Hcp {]iv\hpanÃ. ssZhw A¼e§fn am{XamWp IpSnsImÅp¶Xv. t\Xmhn§s\ ]dªm ]Ån XIÀ¡m\pw XncpthmkvXn hens¨dnbm\pw GXv A\pbmbnbmWp aSn ImWn¡pI? lcnbm\bn sI¼n {Kma¯n \nÀamW¯nencp¶ tZhmebw ASn¨pXIÀ¯v A{IanIÄ Ipcnin\p ]Icw l\pamsâ {]Xna Øm]n¨Xnsâ ]n¶msebmWp kzmanbpsS {]kvXmh\ F¶Xpw {it²bamWv. shdpw tamjW{iaamWp ]Ån XIÀ¡se¦n l\pamsâ {]Xna {]XnjvTn¨Xnse tNtXmhnImcw F´mWv? {]Xna {]XnjvTn¡pI am{Xaà cmasâ ]XmI \m«pIbpw sNbvXp.

It¯men¡mk` F´psNbvXmepw AXp aX]cnhÀ¯\¯n\pw cmjv{Sobkzm[o\¯n\pw thWvSnsb¶mWp kwL]cnhmdnsâ Bt£]w. h¯n¡m³ Iu¬knensâ Un{InIfpÄs¸sS k`bpsS kmaqlnI{]hÀ¯\¯n\pÅ cq]tcJbpw \bhpw aqeyhpw hnizmknIÄ¡p _m[IamWv. AXn\\pkcn¨pÅ kmaqlnI {]hÀ¯\§Ä k` FSp¯ps¡mWvSncn¡pw. P\§fpsS FÃm PohnXaÞe§tfmSpw _Ôs¸«hbmWv Cu {]hÀ¯\§Ä. sXmgnemfnIÄ¡p am{Xaà hyXykvXamb hn`mK§Ä¡pw DtZymKØÀ¡psams¡ AhÀ¡p tNcp¶ coXnbnepÅ ]cnioe\]cn]mSnIÄ k` F¶pw sNbvXps¡mWvSncn¡p¶p. IpSpw_PohnX ]cnioe\w hnhml¯n\pap¼pXs¶ \evIn, hnhml Hcp¡ skan\mdpIÄ \S¯s¸Sp¶p. Chsbms¡ hÀKob tNcnXncnhpIÄ DWvSm¡m\pw cmjv{Sobkzm[o\¯n\pw thWvSnbmsW¶mWp ]pXnb IWvSp]nSp¯w. CSb teJ\§sft¸mepw shdpsX hnSpIbnÃ.

ImÀjnI taJebn k`bpsS CSs]Sepw Ip«\mSv hnIk\ kanXnt]mepÅ kwcw`§fpsams¡ aX]cnhÀ¯\¯nsâ aª¡®mSnbneqsStb kwL]cnhmdn\p ImWm³ Ignbp¶pÅq. A\y kwØm\ sXmgnemfnIfpsS hnjaXIÄ ]cnlcn¡p¶Xn\pÅ k`mip{iqjsbbpw A{]Imcw Xs¶ ImWp¶q. KmUvKnÂ, IkvXqcncwK³ dnt¸mÀ«pIsf¡pdn¨pÅ k`m {]XnIcW§sf¡pdn¨p ]dbpIbpw thWvS. P\Iob {]iv\§fn CSs]SpIsb¶Xp It¯men¡mk`bpsS {]Jym]nX \bamWv. Hcp Ime¯p tdmUpIfpw sshZypXnbpw F´n\p X]m Hm^okv t]mepw sImWvSphcp¶Xn\p t\XrXzw hln¡m³ It¯men¡m sshZnIÀ thWambncp¶p. As¶m¶pw aX]cnhÀ¯\ Nn´ BÀ¡pw DWvSmbncp¶nÃ.

aX¯nsâbpw ssZh¯nsâbpw t]cnepÅ shdp¸nsâ {]NmcWw \½psS kwØm\¯pw hÀ¯am\amIp¶Xp tJZIchpw A]ISIchpamWv. FÃm aX§fnepw alm`qcn]£w kam[m\w Imw£n¡p¶hcmWv. shdp¸nepw hntZzj¯nepaà ka`mh\bnepw kvt\l¯nepamWv ]ptcmKXn DWvSmIp¶sX¶ Imcyw \mw ad¡m³ ]mSnÃ.

]m¡nØm\n aX\nµt]mepÅ \nba§Ä hgn kw`hn¡p¶ {IqcXIÄ \mw tI«psImWvSncn¡p¶XmWv. ]m¡nØm\n emtlmdn \S¶ Iq«s¡mebpw t_mw_nwKpw A]e]n¡m¯hcmbn BcpanÃ. ]m¡nØm\à `mcXw. ChnsS aX]cnhÀ¯\ hncp² \nbaw t]mse H¶pWvSm¡n ]m¡nØms\ ]n´pScm\mWp `mhsa¦n AXp cmPy¯n\p \· sN¿pIbnÃ. lcnbm\bnse apJya{´n at\mlÀem J«mdnsâ A`n{]mbw t]mse `KhXvKoX kvIqfpIfn \nÀ_ÔnX ]T\hnjbam¡pIbpw tKmh[ \ntcm[\\nbaw ASnt¨Â¸n¡pIbpw tZhmeb§fn cma]XmI DbÀ¯pIbpsams¡ sN¿pIhgn ]m¡nØmsâbpw C´y³`cWm[nImcnIfpsS a\kv H¶pXs¶sb¶p sXfnbn¨psImWvSncn¡p¶p.

]et¸mgmbn ]e B]XvL«§sfbpw XcWw sNbvX cmPyamWp \½ptSXv. At¸msgms¡ \s½ \bn¨Xp KmÔnPnbpsSbpw s\lvdphnsâbpw Bib§fmbncp¶p. F¶men¶p KmÔnPnsbbpw s\lvdphns\bpw CSn¨pXmgv¯n ]t«ens\ ap¶nÂ\nÀ¯n Fs´ms¡tbm t\Sm\pÅ ]cn{iaw P\§fn ]cn{`m´nbmWp krjvSn¨ncn¡p¶Xv.

tI{µkÀ¡mcnsâ aXw `mcXamsW¶pw hnip²{KÙw `cWLS\bmsW¶pw s^{_phcn 27þ \v {][m\a{´n ]mÀesaân {]Jym]n¨p. AX\pkcn¨pÅ \S]SnbmWp {][m\a{´nbnÂ\n¶p cmPyw {]Xo£n¡pI. ]t£ klImcnIfmb `cWIÀ¯m¡fpsS `cWLS\mhncp² {]kvXmh\Isf Xncp¯m³ At±lw Xbmdmhp¶nÃ. lnµp {_mÒWm[n]Xyhpw bmYmØnXnIXzhpw hÀWm{ia [Àahpw {]m_ey¯n hcp¯m\pÅ taÂPmXn¡mcpsS KqV{ia§Ä IWvSnsöp \Sn¡p¶ {][m\a{´n F§s\ Xsâ {]Jym]\t¯mSp \oXn]peÀ¯pw? P\w Pm{KX ]men¨nsæn A]ISw ]SnhmXn¡se¯nbncn¡p¶p.


\nbak`bn A§s\bpw Hcp Imew

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sI.Fw. Np½mÀ, thg§m\w

1952 \hw_À 6. cwKw Xncph\´]pc¯p sk{It«dnbänt\mSv A\p_Ôn¨pWvSmbncp¶ ]gb \nbak`m lmÄ. H¶mw s]mXpsXcsªSp¸n Imªnc¸Ån aÞe¯nÂ\n¶pÅ kzX{´ Øm\mÀYnbmbn hnPbn¨ sI.sP. tXmakv kwkmcn¡pIbmWv. hWvS³ta«nepw A¿¸³tImhnenepw aäpapÅ Irjn¡msc Cd¡nhnSp¶Xn\pÅ Kh¬saânsâ \nÀtZis¯ FXnÀ¯psImWvSmWv At±lw {]kwKn¡p¶Xv. At±lw C§s\ XpSÀ¶p: ^pUv s{]mUIvj³ sNbÀamsâ \nÀtZia\pkcn¨pw Blzm\a\pkcn¨pw klmbhmKvZm\w A\pkcn¨pw AhnsS IpSntbdn¸mÀ¡p¶ At\Iw Irjn¡msc Cd¡nhnSp¶Xn\mWv C¶v Cu [\m`yÀY\bpambn Kh¬saâv h¶ncn¡p¶Xv. CXn\hÀ¡p eÖbnÃtÃm F¶mWv F\n¡p ]dbm\pÅXv...At±l¯nsâ {]kwK¯n CSs]«psImWvSp kv]o¡À sI.]n. \oeIWvT¸nÅ ]dªp,

Z FIvkv{]j³ eÖbnÃtÃm Cukv A¬ ]mÀesaâdn. F¸mÀ«v {^w Zmäv, Cu^v Z HmWd_nÄ saw_À Xn¦vkv Zmäv F\n FauWvSv Hm^v H^³kohv t{^kntbmfPn C³ lnkv kv]o¨v hn AUzm³kv lnkv tImkv, Zmäv Cukv F tdmwKv t\mj³.(eÖbnÃtÃm F¶ hm¡v ]mÀesaâdnbÃ. IqSmsX {]kwK¯n hfscb[nIw IÀ¡iamb `mj D]tbmKn¡p¶Xv Xsâ Dt±iy¯n\p IqSpX {]tbmP\Icambncn¡psa¶p _lpam\s¸« saw_À hnizkn¡p¶psWvS¦n AXp sXämWv).

\nbak`bn Rms\´p ]dªp? F¶ t]cn sI.sP. tXmakv A¨Sn¨nd¡nb sNdp{KÙ¯nÂ\n¶mWv C¶s¯ Xeapdbv¡v Ahnizk\obambn tXm¶mhp¶ Hcp am\y\nehmcw \½psS \nbak`bv¡pWvSmbncp¶p F¶p hyàam¡p¶ Cu \S]Sn Rm\nhnsS ]IÀ¯nbn«pÅXv.

tIcfkmlnXy A¡mZan \½psS kmlnXyw, \½psS kaqlw F¶ t]cn {]kn²oIcn¨ {KÙ]c¼cbpsS \memw hmey¯nsâ 113 apX 1392 hscbpÅ ]pd§fn 1951 apX 2001 hscbpÅ Imebfhn temI¯p \S¶ {][m\ kw`h§Ä XobXn¡W¡n\p tNÀ¯n«pWvSv. AhbnÂ\n¶p cWvSp kw`h§Ä Xmsg ]IÀ¯p¶p.

1958 HIvtSm_À 13. tIcf apJya{´n C.Fw.Fkv. \¼qXncn¸mSv tIcf sslt¡mSXnbn t\cn«p lmPcmbn tcJmaqew £ambmN\w sNbvXXns\¯pSÀ¶v tImSXnbe£y tIknÂ\n¶v At±ls¯ Hgnhm¡n.

1958 Pqsse 26þ\p hc´c¸ÅnbnepWvSmb kw`hs¯¡pdn¨v HmKÌv F«n\p Xncph\´]pc¯v Hcp ]{Xkt½f\¯n apJya{´n \S¯nb {]kvXmh\bmWv tIkn\m[mcambXv.
hc´c¸Ånbn sImÃs¸« kn.Sn. sIm¨m¸phnsâ aI³ tXmakvIp«nbmWv lÀPn \ÂInbncp¶Xv. (t]Pv 354, 355).

1968 s^{_phcn 9. tIcf apJya{´n C.Fw.Fkv. \¼qXncn¸mSns\ tImSXnbe£y¯n\p in£n¨p. C´ybpsS \nbaNcn{X¯nemZyambmWv Hcp apJya{´nsb tImSXnbe£y¯n\p in£n¡p¶Xv. Bbncw cq] ]ngtbm Asæn Hcpamkw XSthm BWv in£’’ (t]Pv 556, 557).{]Xn]£¯p sI. IcpWmIc\pw sI.Fw. tPmÀPpw sI.Fw. amWnbpw Hs¡ Ccn¡pt¼mgmWp in£bpw hm§n C.Fw.Fkv apJya{´nbpsS Itkcbn XebpbÀ¯n (AtXm Xmgv¯ntbm) ]nSn¨ncp¶Xv. At±lw cmPnhbv¡Wsa¶v Ahcmcpw ]dªnÃ.


t\mhn¡s¸« ]m¼pIÄ

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A\´]pcn /ZznP³

tIcf tIm¬{KkpIfn kz´ambn {Kq¸pWvSm¡n Icp\o¡nbhcn a{´n¡tkcbn F¯m³ `mKyw In«m¯ GIt\XmhmWp ]n.kn. tPmÀPv. AXnsâ AaÀj§Ä ]mÀ«n¡pw ap¶Wn¡pw a{´nk`m cq]oIcWImew apXte XethZ\bpamWv. B XethZ\ kw_Ôn¨v Hcp Xocpam\w DWvSmIp¶ a«nemWv Ct¸mÄ Imcy§Ä. R§fmcpw ]dªt¸mÄ amWnkmÀ tI«nà C\n X¶¯m³ sN¿v F¶ a«nemWp ]mÀ«nbnse tPmk^v {Kq¸pw tIm¬{Kkpw. ]ZhnbnÃm¯ tPmÀPv ]ZhnbpÅ tPmÀPns\¡mÄ kÀ¡mcn\v A]ISamhpw F¶ `oXnbpapWvSv. tPmÀPns\ t\mhn¸n¡p¶Xp ]m¼ns\ t\mhn¸n¡p¶Xpt]memIpsa¶p ]dbp¶hcpWvSv.

a{´nØm\w BÀ¡pthWw Fs¶ms¡ Nm\ NÀ¨Ifn ]dbmdpsWvS¦nepw AXp In«m¯Xn tPmÀPn\pÅ k¦Sw FÃm NÀ¨Ifnepw hyàamImdpWvSv. amWn Xs¶ I_fn¸n¨p F¶mWv C¡mcy¯n Gähpw Ahkm\w At±lw ]dªXpw. a{´nk`m cq]oIcW Ime¯v GXp IW¡p h¨p t\m¡nbmepw aq¶p a{´namÀ¡pÅ AhImiw tIcf tIm¬{Kkn\v DWvSmbncp¶p F¶Xp tPmÀPnt\mSv HcSp¸hpw CÃm¯ amWntbmSp IqdpÅ {]hÀ¯IcpsSbpw a\nknencp¸mWv. ]gb Ime¯p ImWn¡p¶ Bthisam¶pw amWn C¡mcy¯n ImWn¨nà F¶v AhÀ k\ymbw IcpXp¶p. aäp t\Xm¡Äs¡Ãmw a{´namcmImsa¦n tPmÀPn\p am{Xw F´psImWvSv AXmbn¡qSm F¶Xp kz`mhnIambpw At±ls¯bpw At±lw a{´nbmbn ImWWw F¶v B{Kln¡p¶hscbpw AkzØcm¡p¶p.

]mÀ«nbpsS Øm]It\Xmhv sI.Fw. tPmÀPv. BÀ. _meIrjvW]nÅ, sI.Fw. amWn, ]n.sP. tPmk^v, Sn.Fw. tP¡_v, F´n\p tem\¸³ \¼mS³ hsc AhcpsS ]mÀ«nbpsS te_en a{´nbmbhcmWv. ChÀ¡p a{´namcmIm³ thWvSnbmbncp¶p Cu ]mÀ«n F¶phsc Ncn{XImc·mÀ¡p tcJs¸Spt¯WvSnhcpwhn[w hyàn\njvTambn«mWp tIcf tIm¬{KkpIÄ {]hÀ¯n¡p¶Xpw. AXpsImWvSp tPmÀPnsâ am{Xw B{Kls¯ AXym{Klw F¶p Nn{XoIcn¡p¶Xp icnbmtWm?

hm¡pIfnepw {]hr¯nIfnepw kw`hn¨ A_²amWp tPmÀPns\ Cu KXnbnse¯n¨Xv. Asæn At±lw hfsc iàambn {]hÀ¯n¨ tPmk^v {Kq¸n tPmk^v amdn ]Icw a{´n DWvSmtIWvSn h¶t¸mÄ Sn.bp. Ipcphnfbv¡pw tam³kv tPmk^n\pw hn. kptc{µ³]nÅbv¡pw F{Xtbm apt¼ a{´nbmtIWvS Bfmbncp¶p tPmÀPv. tPmk^n\p aämscbpwImÄ {]nbs¸«h\pw Bbncp¶ntà tPmÀPv? B _Ôw h¨v B ]mÀ«nbnse ]escbpw tPmÀPv apdns¸Sp¯nbn«pw DWvSv. Ahkm\w tPmÀPv X\ns¡Xntc hcp¶p F¶p IWvStXmsSbmWv tPmk^v IÀi\ \S]Snbnte¡p XncnªXv.

A¡me¯p tPmk^ns\msSm¸w \n¶p amWns¡Xntc tPmÀPv \S¯nbn«pÅ ]cmaÀi§fpsS \nehmcw BÀ¡mWv HmÀ½bnÃm¯Xv. A¶p tPmk^v tPmÀPns\ \nb{´n¨nÃ. amWn{Kq¸n h¶tijw tPmk^ns\Xntc AtX coXnbn Xs¶ tPmÀPv {]hÀ¯n¨p. amWnbpw H¶pw sNbvXnÃ. ]n.sP. tPmk^ns\Xntc hfsc tamiamb {]XnIcW§Ä tPmÀPv \S¯nbt¸mÄ tIcf tIm¬{Kknse tPmk^v hn`mK¡mcpw tIm¬{Kkv t\Xm¡Äs¡Xntc ]dªt¸mÄ tIm¬{KkpImcpw tPmÀPns\ \nebv¡p\nÀ¯Wsa¶v amWntbmSv Bhiys¸«XmWv. Xm³ t\m¡nbm AXp km[n¡nsöv Dd¸pÅXpsImWvSmhWw As¶m¶pw amWn AXn\p XbmdmbnÃ. Ct¸mÄ C§s\ apt¶m«pt]mIm³ BInsöp h¶tXmsS amWnbpw \nÀ_ÔnX\mbn.

tPmÀPv D]tbmKn¡p¶ `mjsb `b¶p ]ecpw tPmÀPns\Xntc \ne]msSSp¡m³ `bs¸Sp¶p F¶Xp P\m[n]Xyap¶Wnbn tPmÀPn\p taÂss¡ sImSp¡p¶ LSIamWv. GXm\pw\mÄ ap¼v sI]nknkn tbmK¯n sI. apcfo[c³ ]dªXmbn h¶ Hcp hmÀ¯ DWvSv. tPmÀPns\¡pdn¨v Xm³ hÃXpw ]dªm \msf Xsâ AÑs\¡pdn¨v F´mhpw At±lw ]dbpI F¶XpsImWvSv Xm³ H¶pw anWvSp¶nsöv. tIcf tIm¬{Kknsâ \nÀhmlI kanXnIfn tPmÀPv D]tbmKn¡p¶ `mjbn ]ecpw Gsd AkzØcmImdpWvSv F¶Xp kaImeo\ kXyw. tXhc tImfPv apX tPmÀPnsâ IqsS cmjv{Sob¯nepÅ Hcp t\Xmhv Hcp ]mÀ«n tbmK¯n AtX `mjbn Xncn¨p]dªp XpS§nbtXmsS tPmÀPv \ni_vZ\mbn F¶v At±lw AhImis¸«ptI«n«pWvSv.

2011 se sXcsªSp¸n\p ap¼v tPmÀPnsâ ]mÀ«n amWn{Kq¸n ebn¡mXncn¡pIbpw ap¶Wn LSII£nbmbn aÕcn¡m\mhpIbpw sNbvXncp¶p F¦n 2011 se D½³ NmWvSn a{´nk`bn tPmÀPn\pw Hcp a{´nØm\w e`n¡pambncp¶p F¶v C¶mÀ¡pw kwibanÃ. A§s\ kw`hn¨ncps¶¦n Ct¸mÄ ]dbp¶Xpt]mepÅ kwkmcw tPmÀPn \n¶v DWvSmInÃmbncp¶p F¶p IcpXp¶hcpw [mcmfapWvSv.

tPmÀPv amWn {Kq¸n ebn¨Xp amWntbm tPmÀtPm B{Kln¨XpsImWvSÃ. cWvSmÄ¡pw AXmhiyambncp¶p F¶ ImcWw DsWvS¦nepw sN¿p¶Xv A]ISamIpsa¶ `bhpw DWvSmbncp¶p. amWn{Kq¸nsâ ssien¡p tNÀ¶ t\Xmhà tPmÀPv. P\m[n]Xyap¶Wnbn Hcp ]pXnb LSII£nbmbn tPmÀPns\ tNÀ¡m³ A¶mÀ¡pw XmXv]cyw DWvSmbncp¶nÃ. AXpsImWvSv tPmÀPn\v A¯c¯n Hcp ap¶Wn {]thi\w km[yambncp¶nÃ. 2006 se D½³ NmWvSn kÀ¡mÀ GImwK]mÀ«nIÄ¡p a{´nØm\w sImSp¯nÃ. _meIrjvW ]nÅsbbpw Sn.Fw. tP¡_ns\bpw ]pd¯p\nÀ¯n. AtXmsS C\n ap¶Wnbn Ibdnbmepw Hcp koäv Pbn¨m Xs¶ sk¡peÀ tIcf tIm¬{Kkv F¶ ]mÀ«n¡p Hcp a{´nØm\w A{X km[yambncp¶nÃ.

amWnbpsS ]mem aWvUe¯n\v DWvSmb amäw tPmÀPns\ FSp¡m³ amWnsbbpw t{]cn¸n¨p. ]pXnb ]mem aWvUe¯nse A©p ]©mb¯pIÄ tPmÀPnsâ X«Iambncp¶ ]qªmdnsâ `mKambncp¶p. ]membnse hnPb¯n\pthWvSn F´pw sN¿p¶ amWnbpsS a\kv tPmÀPv IogS¡n F¶mWp amWnbpsS Iq«pImÀ t]mepw ]dbp¶Xv. AXpaà tIm«bw temIvk`m koän tPmkv sI. amWn¡Xntc aÕcn¡psa¶pw tPmÀPv `ojWns¸Sp¯n. A\hkc¯nepw ]Zhn¡p \nc¡m¯Xpamb hm¡pIÄ tPmÀPn\v A]ISw DWvSm¡nbXpt]mse Cu {]Jym]\w Ahkchpw DWvSm¡n. tPmÀPv amWnbn tNÀ¶p. tP¡_nsâbpw ]nÅbpsSbpw tPmÀPnsâbpw ]mÀ«nIÄ tNÀ¶pWvSm¡nb tIcf tIm¬{Kkv sFIythZn CÃmXmbn. ]nÅbpw tP¡_pw kz´w hnemk¯n ap¶Wnbn XpSÀ¶p.

Hmtcm ]mÀ«nbnepw hg¡pWvSmIpt¼mÄ cWvSp Iq«scbpw Ipsd¡mew ]pd¯ncp¯n Imcy§Ä NÀ¨ sN¿p¶ CSXp]£¯nsâ ta[miànsbm¶pw heXpap¶Wn¡nÃ. cWvSmsfbpw ap¶Wnbn \ne\nÀ¯p¶ ]mc¼cyamWv P\m[n]Xyap¶WnbptSXv. AXp kw`hn¨m amWn {Kq¸v eb\w sImWvSv tPmÀPn\pWvSmbncn¡mhp¶ Gähpw henb t\«w P\m[n]Xyap¶Wnbn kz´amb Hcp taÂhnemkw In«ntb¡pw F¶XmWv. FÃm LSII£nIfpw AXn\p k½Xn¡ptam F¶ tNmZyapWvSv. Ct¸mÄ Xs¶ 140 koäpsImWvSv XnIbp¶nÃ.

amWnbnÂ\n¶p amdn kz´w ]mÀ«n BIm³ Ahkcw DWvSm¡nbm XXvImew tPmÀPv H¶pw ]dªnsænepw sshImsX hnet]i Iq«pw. hg§msX h¶m ap¶Wn¡v C¶t¯¡mÄ `ojWn DWvSm¡mw. \nbak`bn kÀ¡mcns\ adn¨nSm\pÅ \o¡§Ä \S¯mw. AXpsImWvSv amWntbmSp kvt\lansænepw D½³ NmWvSn amWn ]dbp¶Xp tIÄ¡m\mhpw km[yX. F¶mepw cmPyk`m sXcsªSp¸v h¶p aq¡n IbdnbXpsImWvSpw cmPyk`bnte¡pÅ koäpIÄ eoKn\pw tIm¬{Kkn\pw Btb¡mw F¶XpsImWvSpw Hmtcm thm«pw \nÀWmbIambXpsImWvSpw eoKpw tIm¬{Kkpw Ct¸mÄ tPmÀPns\ \ne\nÀ¯m³ ]e hn«phogvNbv¡pw XbmdmIptam F¶ kwibhpapWvSv.

tIcf tIm¬{KkvþF½nÂ\n¶p ]pd¯m¡s¸Sp¶nsæn tPmÀPn\p {]hÀ¯\¯n\v hfsc ]cnanXnIÄ DWvSmhpw. ]mÀ«nbpsS hn¸v A\pkcnt¡WvSn hcpw. ewLn¨m \S]Sn hcmw. AXp `mhnsb hsc tZmjIcambn _m[n¡mw. AXv Hgnhm¡m³ tPmÀPn\v \nbak`mwKXzw cmPnhbv¡mw. F¦n ]pXnb sXcsªSp¸v hcpw. ]¯\wXn«bnse tIm¬{Kkv Øm\mÀYn Btâm BâWn AhImis¸Sp¶Xpt]mse tPmÀPv ]camh[n klmbn¨n«pw temIvk`m sXcsªSp¸n ]qªmdn bpUnF^v ap¶nembn. CSXp Øm\mÀYnsb¡mÄ aqhmbncw thm«mWv IqSpXÂ. F¶mÂ, \nbak`bnte¡v tPmÀPv aÕcn¨t¸mÄ AXv 15,000 Bbncp¶p. hg¡n«psImWvSmsW¦nepw tPmÀPv IqsS DWvSmbncp¶ ap¶Wn¡mWp temIvk`m sXcsªSp¸n taÂss¡ In«nbXv. tPmÀPv ]pdt¯¡p t]mIpt¼mÄ B \ne amdmw.

\nbak`bn kÀ¡mcn\p IjvSn¨v Ht¶m ctWvSm thm«p am{XamWv IqSpX F¶XpsImWvSv A]ISkm[yXIÄ aq³Iq«n ImsWWvSXpWvSv. Pn.sIbpsS acWw aqew Acphn¡caWvUe¯n D]sXcsªSp¸mWv. (Acphn¡csb¡pdn¨v temIvk`m sXcsªSp¸n AhnsS _n.sP. ]n H¶masX¯n F¶v ZznP³ FgpXnbXv icnbÃ. 2011 se \nbak`m sXcsªSp¸nteXnsâ Cc«ntbmfw thm«v temIk`m sXcsªSp¸n AhÀ¡p e`n¨p. F¦nepw AhnsS CSXp]£¯n\mbncp¶p 5000 thm«nsâ taÂss¡. 2011  P\m[n]Xyap¶WnbpsS Pn.sI 10000 thm«n\v eoUv sNbvX aWvUeambncp¶p Ft¶mÀ¡Ww.) AhnsSbpw Pbn¡m³ km[yX DsWvS¦nepw Acphn¡cbpw P\m[n]Xyap¶WnbpsS jphÀ kosäm¶paÃ. AXpsImWvSv tPmÀPns\¡qSn Ifbp¶Xns\¡pdn¨p Nn´n¡m³ t]mepw IgnbnÃ.

X\n¡p amÀKXSkw F¶p IWvShÀs¡Ãmw”icn¡p ]Wn sImSp¯ Ncn{XamWv tPmÀPntâXv. ]qªmdn X\n¡p apt¼ tIcf tIm¬{Kkv FwFÂF Bb hn.sP. tPmk^ns\ apX Ipcphnfsbbpw tPmk^ns\bpw amWnsbbpw FÃmw tPmÀPv shÅw IpSn¸n¨n«pWvSv. Ct¸mÄ amWn AXv A\p`hn¡p¶p. AXn\p thWvS klmbnIsf IsWvS¯m\pw F¡mehpw tPmÀPn\mbn«pWvSv. tPmk^pw amWnbpw D½³ NmWvSnbpw ctaipw F´n\v Ct¸mgs¯ hnFkvUn]nbpw FkvUn]nsFbpw am[ya§fpw AS¡w FÃmhscbpw tPmÀPv D]tbmKn¡p¶p. Hcn¡Â klmbnbmbncp¶hÀs¡Ãmw Xs¶ tPmÀPnsâ B{IaWw t\cntSWvSnh¶n«papWvSv... Ahcn klnsI« hn.Fkv. ANypXm\µ³ tNmZn¨ntà kz´w t\Xmhns\Xntc \S]Sn thWsa¶v ]dªp \S¶ Bftà tPmÀPv F¶v. a®mdimebn kÀ¸]qP \S¯nbtijw Acphn¯pd¸Ånbn Igp¶v Fgp¶Ån¡m\pw At±l¯n\v aSnbnÃ. tkmWnbm KmÔn¡p Pbv hnfn¡p¶ AtX \mhpsImWvSv tamZn¡pw Pbv hnfn¡pw. Ft´ tPmÀPv C§s\ sN¿p¶p F¶v ]ecpw tNmZn¡p¶psWvS¦nepw tNmZnt¡WvShcmcpw AhcpsS Xebv¡p t\tc ASn hcp¶Xp hsc tNmZn¡mdpanÃ. ssek³knÃm¯ \m¡tà F¶p tNmZn¨v hfw h¨p sImSp¡pw. tPmÀPnsâ FÃm klmbnIÄ¡pw In«nbn«pWvSv Cu ASn.

1978 emWv tPmÀPns\Xntc BZyambn tIcf tIm¬{Kkn \S]Sn DWvSmIp¶Xv. 1978 sk]väw_À 13 \v At±ls¯bpw ]n¡me¯v At±l¯ns\Xntc aÕcn¨ Sn.hn. G{_mls¯bpw H¶n¨mWv ]mÀ«nbn \n¶pw ]pd¯m¡p¶Xv. A¡mes¯ ]qªmdnse tIcfmtIm¬{Kkv FwFÂF Bbncp¶ hn.sP. tPmk^ns\ sXcsªSp¸n tXm¸n¡m³ IqsS \n¶v {]hÀ¯n¨p F¶mbncp¶p ]cmXn. hn.sP. tPmk^nsâ ]cmXn At\zjn¨ ]n.sP. tPmk^v AS¡apÅ ]mÀ«n I½oj³ tPmÀPns\Xntc \S]Sn in]mÀi sNbvXp. ]pd¯m¡s¸« tPmÀPv 1979 se ]mÀ«n ]nfÀ¸n tPmk^nsâ IqsS F¯pIbpw amWns¡Xncmb IpähnNmcWbpsS Ip´ap\ BhpIbpw sNbvXp. A§s\ 1980  ]qªmdn tPmk^v {Kq¸v Øm\mÀYnbmbn tPmÀPv aÕcn¨p Pbn¨p. XpSÀ¶v 1982epw 1996 epw 2001 epw 2006 epw 2011 epw tPmÀPv ]qªmdn \n¶pw \nbak`bnse¯n. CXn 2003 hscbpÅ sXcsªSp¸pIfn tPmk^v {Kq¸pImc\mbncp¶p. tPmÀPv tPmk^ns\¡mÄ hfcp¶Xp IWvSt¸mÄ FÃmhÀ¡pw A]ISkqN\ a\knembn. 2001 se BâWn a{´nk`bpsS Ime¯v IcpWmIc³ \S¯nb _Z a{´nk`m \o¡§fn tPmÀPv Ifn¡mc\mbn. IcpWmIcsâ dn_ Øm\mÀYn tImtSm¯v tXmäp. 2003 sabv 31 \v tPmÀPns\ ]mÀ«nbn \n¶pw tPmk^v ]pd¯m¡n. tPmÀPpw XÃn¡q«n Hcp ]mÀ«n. 2006  CSXpap¶Wn A[nImc¯nse¯n. apJya{´n hn.Fknsâ ISp¯ ]n´pW DWvSmbncp¶p tPmÀPn\v. ]t£ a{´nk`bn CSw In«nbXv tPmk^n\pw.

2011  amWn {Kq¸v Øm\mÀYnbmbn aÕcn¨p Pbn¨p. F´v AhImihmZw ]dªmepw Iqdpamä \nbaw A\pkcn¨v tPmÀPn\v CtXmsS amWn F¶ ]cn[n DWvSmbn. aÕcn¨ ]mÀ«nbpsS hn¸v A\pkcn¡m³ tPmÀPv _m[yØ\mWv. AXpsImWvSv amWn ]pd¯m¡msX At±l¯n\p ]gb ]mÀ«n ]p\cpÖohn¸n¡mt\m B t]cn ap¶Wnbn CSw tXSmt\m km[n¡nÃ. amWn Iq«nbnsæn GtIm]\ kanXnbnepw F¯m\mhnÃ. CXn\ÀYw tPmÀPv XoÀ¯pw ZpÀ_e\msW¶Ã. Nne _Ô\§Ä DsWvS¶v kXyw. \nbak`bnse AwK_ew h¨v ]t£ amWnsb ]nW¡m³ Ct¸mÄ D½³ NmWvSn¡mhnÃ. hÃm¯ Ducm¡pSp¡nembn ap¶Wn.






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