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amWnhntcm[¯nsâ ASnthcpIÄ

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Sn. tZh{]kmZv

_mÀtImg hnhmZ¯n Ft´ sI.Fw. amWnbpsS cà¯n\pthWvSn am{Xw C{X iàamb apdhnfn Dbcp¶p? tIcf¯n _mdpIÄ¡p ssek³kv ]pXp¡n¡n«m\pw sImSp¡mXncn¡m\pw Hs¡bmbn _mÀ apXemfnamÀ a{´namÀ¡p ssI¡qen sImSp¯Xmbn Ahcn Hcmfmb _nPp ctaiv \S¯nb shfns¸Sp¯emWp _mÀ tImgt¡kv hnhmZ¯n\p XpS¡ambXv. kwØm\s¯ aq¶p a{´namÀ¡p ssI¡qenbmbn h³ XpI sImSp¯p F¶mWp _nPp ]dªXv. AXn amWnbpsS t]cp am{XamWv At±lw shfns¸Sp¯p¶Xv. amWnbpsS t]cp am{Xta At±lw ]dbq.

_nPphpambn ASp¯ _ÔapÅ {]Xn]£ t\Xmhv hn.Fkv. ANypXm\µ³ aäp cWvSp a{´namcpsS t]cpIÄ IqSn ]dsª¦nepw AgnaXnhncp²Às¡Ãmw amWnbpsS càw In«nbm aXn F¶ a«nemWp Imcy§Ä ]ptcmKan¡p¶Xv. aäp cWvSp t]cpIÄ FhnsS F¶p ]nWdmbnsbt¸mepÅhÀ tNmZn¡pt¼mÄ am[ya§Ä hymJym\n¡p¶Xp amWntbmSp ]nWdmbn¡p arZpkao]\w F¶mWv.

_mÀ {]iv\¯n ssI¡qen hm§n¨n«pw Imcyw \S¯ns¡mSp¯nà F¶ ]cmXntbmsSbmbncp¶p XpS¡w. ]n¶oSp XpI ssI¡qenbmbà sXcsªSp¸p ^WvSn\mWp sImSp¯Xv F¶ hniZoIcWw \S¯n FÃmw HXp¡p¶p F¶ [mcW ]SÀ¯n. _nbÀ, ssh³ ]mÀeÀ ssek³kpIÄ In«n¡gnªt¸mÄ hoWvSpw AgnaXn¡Ybpambn h¶p. tNmcbv¡pthWvSnbpÅ apdhnfn AXniàam¡n. amWn _Päv AhXcn¸n¡m³ k½Xn¡nà Fs¶ms¡bmWp ]dbp¶Xv.

NnÃd¡mcs\m¶paà _nPp ctaiv. 2000 tImSnbmWt{X At±l¯nsâ BkvXn. ssh¸n³ aZyZpc´t¡knse {]XnbpsS _ÔphmWv At±lw. kz¯pw _Ôp_ehpsaÃmw DÅbmÄ. BÀ. _meIrjvW]nÅ, ]n.kn. tPmÀPv XpS§nbhscsbÃmw tN«m F¶p hnfn¨p kwkmcn¡p¶Xn\pÅ _Ôw DÅbmÄ. tIcf¯nse F®w ]dª A_vImcn I¨hS¡mc³. At±lw ]dbp¶X\pkcn¨v, IcpWmIc³ apJya{´n Bbncp¶ Ime¯p tIm¬{Kkv `cn¨ FIvsskkv hIp¸v X\ns¡Xntc FSp¯ 28 tIkpIÄ apJya{´nsb D]tbmKn¨p ]n³hen¸n¨bmÄ.

cmP³ tIkn IpSp§n apJya{´nØm\w \jvSamb IcpWmIc³ hoWvSpw apJya{´n BIp¶Xphsc Xmakn¨ncp¶Xp _nPphnsâ Aѳ ctai³ tIm¬{SmIvSdpsS DÅqcnse hkXnbnembncp¶p. AXpsImWvSpXs¶ _nPphn\p ]ecpambpw henb ASp¸w DWvSmhmw. AsXms¡ Ct¸mÄ apXem¡p¶pw DWvSmImw. Ahcn NneÀs¡¦nepw amWn XethZ\bmWv. ho«n Xmakn¡m³ CSw sImSp¯XpsImWvSv B 28 tIkv ]n³hen¨XS¡w At±lw Fs´Ãmw IcpWmIc\n \n¶p t\Snbncn¡psa¶v C¶p P\w Nn´n¨pt]mIp¶p.

t\Xm¡Ä¡p kw`mh\ F¶ t]cn sImSp¡p¶Xp ]eXpw km[ns¨Sp¡m\pÅ ssI¡qenbmbmWp _nPphns\t¸mepÅhÀ IcpXp¶Xv. _nPphn\v FÃmw Xm³ ]dbp¶Xpt]mse \S¯m\pw ]dªm A¸Sn tIÄ¡m¯hsc F§s\ IpSp¡msa¶pw Adnbmsa¶p hyàw. _nPp ]dbp¶Xp tIcf¯n A_vImcn tImg CÃm¯ Imew CSXp `cWamsW¶mWv. ]n.sI. KpcpZmks\¡pdn¨p ]dbpt¼mÄ At±l¯n\v F{X \mhmWv! KpcpZmksâ Ime¯p tIcf¯n \S¶Xv cWvSp hnjaZy Zpc´§Äþ BhWoizc¯pw ae¸pd¯pw. cWvSnS¯pw IqSn acWw 29. Bip]{XnbnembhÀ Ccp\qtdmfw t]À. F{X\à `cWw!

A¶v A_vImcnIÄ¡p In«nbXv 1610 ]pXnb aZyjm¸pIÄ. Häss¸k sImSp¡msX. FIvsskkvImÀ A¡me¯p ]¯\wXn«bnsebpw Icnbne¡pf§cbnsebpw Hmtcm {]mtZinI kn]nFw t\Xm¡fn \n¶p ]nSns¨Sp¯Xv 17,800 enäÀ hymP kv]ncnäv! Ip{]kn²\mb aWn¨³ amk¸Sn sImSp¯ncp¶hcn kXyt\i\S¡w F{Xtbm kn]nFw t\Xm¡Ä! AgnaXn CÃm¯hÀ!

kwØm\¯p \nehnÂh¶ AgnaXn \ntcm[\ I½oj³ AgnaXn¡mcs\¶p IsWvS¯nb A¡mes¯ Hcp FwFÂFbv¡pw Ct¸mÄ Nm\epIfn AgnaXn F¶p tIÄ¡p¶Xp Xs¶ AeÀPnbmWv.

i{Xp¡Ä am{Xaà amWnsb {]Xntcm[n¡ms\¶ a«n F¯p¶hcn NneÀ t]mepw amWnsb IpSp¡m\pÅ ]pXnb bp²apJ§Ä Xpd¶psImSp¡p¶p. amWns¡Xntc h¶ Btcm]Ww ]mÀ«n {]hÀ¯Isc BsI Des¨¶pw Ct¸mÄ cmPnh¨nsænepw Ipä]{Xw hcnItbm tImSXnbpsS hà ]cmaÀi\hpw hcnItbm sNbvXm cmPnhbvt¡WvSnhcpw Fs¶ms¡ ]dªmWv AhÀ ap³Iq«n FdnªpsISp¡p¶Xv. CXp {_q«kns\ {]iwkn¨v At±ls¯ IpähnNmcW sNbvX amÀ¡v BâWnbpsS X{´amsW¶v BÀ¡mWdnbm¯Xv!

amWntbmtSm amWnbpsS ssientbmtSm H¶pw bmsXmcp XmXv]cyhpw CÃm¯hÀt]mepw tNmZn¨pt]mIp¶p Ft´ amWnbpsS am{Xw tNmcbv¡mbn C§s\? _mÀ {]iv\¯n \nÀWmbIXocpam\w FSp¡p¶Xv FIvsskkv hIp¸mWv. \b]camb Imcy§Ä Xocpam\n¡p¶Xp apJya{´nbpw. F¶n«pw C¡mcy¯n henb ]s¦m¶pw CÃm¯ [\, \nba a{´n amWn {]Xn¡q«nÂ. CXv AXykm[mcWamb kw`hamWv. hnZym`ymk hIp¸nse AgnaXn¡v sXmgnÂa{´nsb AgnaXn¡mc\m¡p¶Xpt]mencn¡pw.

_mÀtImg tIknsâ ap¶Wnt¸mcmfnIfpw AWnbd¡mcpw \S¯p¶ IfnIfpsS ASnthcpIÄ tXSn F¯p¶hÀ¡v Hcp Imcyw hyàamIp¶p. ChnsS Bcpw AgnaXn¡v FXncÃ. amWns¡Xntc ]dª ]nÅsb am{Xaà tPmÀPns\bpw CSXpap¶Wnbn kzoIcn¡p¶ Imcyw BtemNn¡msa¶p ]nÅsb AgnaXnt¡kn Pbnen AS¸n¨ hn.Fkv. ANypXm\µ³ Xs¶ hyàam¡n. ]nÅ h¶m ]¯\m]pcw koäv hn«psImSpt¡WvSn hcpsa¶p `bapÅ kn]nsF ]Xnhpt]mse FXnÀ¡p¶pWvSv. ]mÀ«nbpsS ]mÀesaâv koäp hnäp ImipWvSm¡nb “AgnaXnbnÃm¯’ ]mÀ«nbmWv kn]nsF F¶v FÃmhÀ¡pw Adnbmw. AXmWv AhcpsS kXyw.

CSXp]£¯p \n¶pÅ hnfntI«p ]WvSp heXp]£¯p\n¶p hn«hcmcpw Dt±in¨ kab¯p a\kam[m\t¯msS AI¯pIS¶n«nÃ. IcpWmIcsâbpw apcfnbpsSbpw UnsFknbpw A§s\ Xs¶. Ahkm\w UnsFkn¡p he¯p Xs¶ CSwIn«n. FÃmhÀ¡pw A§s\ In«Wsa¶nÃ.

At¸mÄ Ft´ amWnbpsS tNmcbv¡pthWvSn am{Xambn hnem]w amdp¶p? At±lw Hcp {]tXyI kapZmb¡mc\pw B kapZmb¯n s]«pt]msb¦nepw FÃmhÀ¡pw kzoImcy\mb {]KÛ `cWm[nImcnbpw GXp ]Zhn hscbpw F¯nt¨cmhp¶ \mbI\pamWv F¶ kXyamWv Ahsc BIpecm¡p¶sX¶v B kapZmb¯nepÅ amWnhncp²À t]mepw `b¡p¶p.

Xs¶¡mÄ Hcp {]KÛ³ Xsâ kapZmb¯n hcp¶Xns\ CjvSs¸Sm¯hsc amWnbpsS kapZmb¯n \n¶p amWns¡Xntc DbÀ¯p¶pWvSv. amWnsbt¸mepÅhÀ¡p t\tcbpÅ C¯cw B{IaWhpw HXp¡epw \n{Kln¡epw C¶pw C¶sebpw XpS§nbXÃ. tIcf¸ndhn apX tIcf¯n B kaqlw A\p`hn¡p¶XmWv. {]Xn]£¯ncp¶t¸mÄ ]mÀ«nsb \bn¨ t\Xm¡fn ]n¶oSv ]mÀ«n A[nImc¯n h¶t¸mÄ kmt¦XnIXSkw CÃmXncp¶n«pw apJya{´nØm\w \jvSs¸«Xp Sn.hn. tXmakn\pw ]n.Sn. Nmt¡mbv¡pambncp¶p. hnFkn\pw DWvSmbn«pWvSv Cu A\p`hw. ]t£ AXn\pap¼v At±l¯nsâ i{Xp¡Ä At±ls¯ sXcsªSp¸n tXm¸n¨ncp¶p. F¶mÂ, Sn.hn. tXmakpw ]n.Sn. Nmt¡mbpw {]Xn£t\XmhmbXn\p ]n¶mse \S¶ sXcsªSp¸n aÕcn¡pIbpw Pbn¡pIbpw sNbvsX¦nepw AhÀ¡p apJya{´n Øm\w \jvSs¸«p.

apJya{´nØm\w \jvSs¸Sp¯pI am{Xaà {]KÛcmb Ahsc CÃmXm¡pI IqSn thWsa¶p \n\¨pÅ PmXn¡fnIfpw tIcfw IWvSXmWv. ap¶Wnbmbn aÕcn¨v Häbv¡p `cn¡m\pÅ `qcn]£w t\Sn, ap¶Wn CÃmXm¡n tXm¶ymkw `cn¨p ]mÀ«n \in¨ \mfnembncp¶p AXvþ AXmbXv 1964 Â. A¡mes¯ tIm¬{Kkv a{´nk`bpsS apJya{´n BÀ. i¦dmbncp¶p F¦nepw ]n.Sn. Nmt¡msb {]Xn]£w hnfn¨ncp¶Xp a{´n apJy³ F¶mbncp¶p. Hmtcm {]iv\¯nepw Nmt¡m F´p sN¿pw F¶mbncp¶p FÃmhcpsSbpw A¡mes¯ t\m«w. ]mÀ«nsbbpw kÀ¡mcns\bpw GXp {]XnkÔnbn \n¶pw IcbIbäp¶, {]Xn]£ B{IaW§Äs¡Xntc sImSp¦mämbn cq]m´cs¸Sp¶ iàn.

1963 Unkw_À F«n\p Nmt¡m HmSn¨ncp¶ ImÀ Xriqcn A]IS¯n s]«p. AXn a{´ns¡m¸w Hcp kv{Xobpw DWvSmbncp¶p. X«n sImet¡kn B`y´ca{´n Nmt¡mbpsS t]meokv {]Xnbm¡nb sI. IcpWmIc³, Nmt¡m dh\ypa{´nbmbncp¶t¸mÄ At±lhpambn DS¡nb hS¡\¨³ XpS§n Xriqcn DWvSmbncp¶ Nmt¡mhncp²cpw IayqWnÌpImÀs¡m¸w tNÀ¶p Nmt¡mbvs¡Xntc cwK¯ph¶p.

1964 P\phcn 28 \v \nbak` tNÀ¶t¸mÄ {]Xn]£w _lfw Bcw`n¨p. Nmt¡m cmPnhbv¡Wsa¶v AhÀ Bhiys¸«p. Nmt¡mbpsS hniZoIcWw AhÀ XSks¸Sp¯n. km[mcW \nbak`bn knwls¯t¸mse KÀPn¨ncp¶ Nmt¡m A¶p Zo\kzc¯nemWp kwkmcn¨sX¶p Ncn{XImc·mÀ ]dbp¶p.

P\phcn 30 \p KhÀWdpsS \µn{]tab NÀ¨bn ]s¦Sp¯ {]ËmZ³ tKm]me³ F¶ tIm¬{Kkv FwFÂF Nmt¡mbpsS cmPn¡pthWvSn \nbak`bv¡p ap¶n kXy{Klw Bcw`n¨p. acWw hsc \ncmlmcw F¶p ]dªp kacw Bcw`n¨ tKm]me³ cWvSmw]¡w kacw Ahkm\n¸ns¨¦nepw tKm]mesâ {]hr¯nIÄ Nmt¡msb icn¡pw _p²nap«nem¡n. tKm]mesâ kacs¯ B Indp¡³ tKm]mes\ Duf¼mdbv¡p hnSWw F¶p ]dªp ]cnkln¨ NmgnImSs\t¸mepÅ {]Xn]£ FwFÂF amcpw DWvSmbncp¶p.

Nmt¡mbpsS i{Xphmbncp¶ kn.Fw. Ìo^sâ t\XrXz¯n 27 tIm¬{Kkv FwFÂF amÀ Nmt¡m cmPn hbv¡Wsa¶v Bhiys¸«p. A´co£w IqSpX hjfmbn. H¶n¨p\n¶ apJya{´n BÀ. i¦dn\pw Nmt¡mtbmSv A`n{]mbhyXymkambn. Nmt¡mbn \n¶p hIp¸v GsäSp¡m³ apJya{´n Xocpam\n¨p. 1964 s^{_phcn 20 \p Nmt¡m cmPnh¨p.

apkvenw eoKpw a¶¯p ]Û\m`sâ F³FkvFkpw Nmt¡mbv¡p iàamb ]n´pW sImSp¯p. Nmt¡m cmPnhbvt¡WvS Imcyansö Dd¨\ne]mSnembncp¶p AhÀ.

]o¨nbnte¡p t]mb a{´nbpsS Imdn DWvSmbncp¶ kv{Xo, Imd]ISw F¶nh kw_Ôn¨ kXyw F´mbmepw AXdnbm³ \n¡msX Nmt¡m F¶ {]KÛs\ hogv¯m³ A¡me¯pWvSmb ]pI At±l¯nsâ i{Xp¡sfÃmw Bbp[am¡n.

Nmt¡mbpsS ]nSn¸ptISpsImWvSpWvSmb Zpc´¯nsâ ]Ým¯e¯nembmepw ss{IkvXh hn`mK¯n \n¶p hfÀ¶ph¶, Hcp]t£ tIcf¯nsâ apJya{´ntbm AXne¸pdtam Hs¡ BImambncp¶ Hcp t\Xmhv CÃXmbn. A¯cw \nebnte¡p Imcy§Ä F¯n¡Wsa¶mWp _mÀtImg hnhmZ¯nepw Ifn¡mcpsSbpw AWnbd¡mcpsSbpw a\kn encp¸v.

Nmt¡m þ amWn kw`h§Ä X½n kam\XIÄ GsdbpWvSv. A¶p Nmt¡mbpsS i{Xp¡sft¸mse Ct¸mÄ amWnbpsS i{Xp¡sfÃmw H¶n¡p¶p. Ahcn Nnesc¦nepw Cu IfnbpsS Bg¯nepÅ AÀYw a\knem¡msX amWntbmSpÅ ]I sImWvSpam{Xw A§s\ BIp¶XmWv. Nmt¡mbv¡p sIWn Hcp¡nbhcpsS Iq«¯n A{Xbpw Imew Nmt¡mbpsS H¸w \S¶hcpw IfnbpsS ImWm¨cSpIÄ Adnbm¯ Nmt¡mbpsS kapZmbt\Xm¡Ä t]mepw DWvSmbncp¶Xpt]mse amWn¡pw kw`hn¡p¶p. F¶mÂ, eoKpw F³FkvFkpw am{Xaà FkvF³Un]nbpsS shÅm¸Ån \tSi³ hsc amWn¡p ]n´pWbpambn cwK¯pWvSv.

Nmt¡mbpsS Imcy¯nepWvSmbXpt]mse DWvSmthWvS ASp¯ NphSphbv]v D½³ NmWvSn þamWn _Ôw XIÀ¡emWv. apJya{´n _Päv AhXcn¸n¡Ww F¶p ]dbp¶hcpsS a\kn CXmWv. A¶p Nmt¡mbv¡v H¸w \S¶hcn At±ls¯ XÅn¸dªhcmcpw ]ns¶ c£s¸«nà F¶p _meIrjvW]nÅ ]dbmdpWvSmbncp¶p. amWn _mÀ apXemfnamcn \n¶pw ]Ww hm§ntbm CÃtbm F¶v BÀ¡pw XoÀ¨bnsænepw FÃmhÀ¡pw kwibw DWvSm¡m³ amWnhncp²À¡mbn. amWn¡pw thsd cWvSp a{´namÀ¡pw F¶p ]dbp¶hÀ B cWvSp t]cpIÄ a\x]qÀhw hnSp¶p. A¡q«¯n P\m[n]Xyap¶Wnbnse amWn¸IbpÅhscÃmw H¶n¨pIqSp¶Xp a\knem¡m\mhpw.

CSXp]£w Hmtcm¶p ]dbp¶Xp kXyw AdnªpsImWvSsà ¶pw cmjv{Sobe£yt¯msS BsW¶pw BÀ¡mWdnbm¯Xv? tkmfmÀ kw`hs¯¡pdn¨p hnhmZw DWvSm¡nbXp apJya{´n cmPnhbv¡nsöv Adnªp sImWvSmbncp¶p F¶mWp ]nWdmbn Xs¶ ]dªXv. _Päv amWnsbs¡mWvSv AhXcn¸n¡nà F¶ ]d¨nen\pw amWnbpsS AgnaXnsb¡pdn¨pÅ IYIÄ¡pw A{Xbpw t\cmWv DÅXv. tXmakv sFkIv [\a{´n Bbncn¡pt¼mÄ hnhmZ tem«dn DSa kmânbmtKm amÀ«n\n \n¶p tZim`nam\n hm§nbXv cWvSp tImSn cq]. kmânbmtKm amÀ«ns\Xncmb \S]SnIfn shÅw tNÀ¯Xn\p \nbak`bn tImSnIfpsS AgnaXn D¶bn¡s¸«XmWv.

D½³ NmWvSn kÀ¡mÀ `{Zambn apt¶dp¶Xp IWvS CSXp]£w amWnsb apJya{´nbm¡n kÀ¡mcns\ adn¡phm³ BtemN\ \S¯n. At¸mgmWp _mÀtImg hcp¶Xv. AtXmsS amWnbpw tIcf tIm¬{Kkpw Hcpt]mse Akv]riycmbn. ]Icw AhÀ ]nÅsbbpw tPmÀPns\bpw CSt¯¡p £Wn¨p. AhÀ¡p PmXIw t\m¡msX Xocpam\ambn. C¶s¯\nebn cWvSp ap¶WnIfmbm CSXpap¶Wnsb¡mÄ hnPbw heXp ap¶Wn¡mhpw. AXpsImWvSv CS¯p\n¶v Bcpw t]mImsXbpw t\m¡Ww, ]¶ys\t¸mepÅhcpsS FXnÀ¸v adnIS¶pw CSt¯¡v Bsf sImWvSphcnIbpw thWw. {]Xn]£w apbent\msSm¸w HSpIbpw th«\mbs¡m¸w th«bmSpIbpamWv. AgnaXnt¡kn in£n¡s¸« ]nÅ Bip]{Xnbn InS¶Xpw t^m¬hnfn¨Xpw FÃmw D½³NmWvSns¡Xntc D]tbmKn¨hÀ Ct¸mÄ PmXIw t\m¡msX Bsf kzoIcn¡psa¶p ]dbp¶p.

IcpWmIc³ apJya{´n Bbncp¶ Ime¯p ]mtambn tIkpw Nmct¡kn ca¬ {iohmkvXhs¡Xntc \S]Sn FSp¡m¯Xpsa Ãmw Bbp[am¡n At±ls¯ izmkwap«n¨hÀ Ct¸mÄ B tIkpIfn At±ls¯ IpSp¡nbXn\p tIm¬{Kkns\ {]Xn¡q«nem¡p¶p. IcpWmIcs\Xntc tIm¬{KkpImÀ ]cky \ne]mSv FSp¯ncp¶p. kp[oc³ \nbak`bn Ahnizmk{]tabs¯ FXnÀ¯nÃ. tIm¬{Kknse lk³ sNbÀam\mb \nbak`m I½nänbmWv ]mtambn tIkn tIm¬{Kkv apJya{´n IcpWmIcs\Xntc Ipähn[n \S¯nbXv. AXn AhÀ C¶p ]cnX]n¡p¶p!

1964 Nmt¡msb hogv¯nbXn\pw Ct¸mÄ Ipäw tIm¬{Kkn\v. BâWn apJya{´n Bbncp¶t¸mÄ At±l¯nsâ cmPn¡p apdhnfn Iq«nbhÀ At±lw hoWpIgnªt¸mÄ ]m]`mcw D½³NmWvSnbpsS Xebn hbv¡m\mbn {iaw. AhÀ cmPn Bhiys¸Sp¶Xpw kacw \S¯p¶Xpw H¶pw ]dbp¶ Imcy§fn AhÀ¡p t_m[yapÅXpsImWvSÃ. Nne cmjv{Sob e£yw t\Sm\mWv. amWnbpsS Imcy¯nepw AXmhpw AhcpsS a\kv. amWn cmPnhbvt¡WvSn h¶m C{Xbpw {]Kev`s\ \n§Ä FÃmwIqSn CÃmXm¡nbntà F¶p \msf tNmZn¡pw.

tImSXn]cmaÀiw DWvSmbm cmPnhbvt¡WvSnhcpsa¶p ]n.kn. tPmÀPv ]dªXpw A{X kZpt±iyt¯msS BsW¶v Bcpw IcpXnÃ. tImSXnh[n h¶m cmPnhbv¡p¶ Hcp ImeapWvSmbncp¶p. F¶mÂ, ASp¯Ime¯mbn tIcf¯n AXÃtÃm Iogvhg¡w. tImSXn Ae£yt¡kn tIcf sslt¡mSXn in£n¨ Ignª a{´nk`bnse AwKamb ]mtemfn cmPnh¨nÃ. t]meokv \njv{InbXzs¯ hnaÀin¨psImWvSpw kJm¡fpsS tXÀhmgvNbn BIpes¸«pw tIcf¯n `cWaptWvSm F¶p sslt¡mSXn tNmZn¨n«pw A¶v B`y´ca{´n tImSntbcn cmPnh¨nÃ. I®qcn kam[m\w ]p\Øm]n¡Wsa¦n cmjv{Sob kzm[o\¯n\p hg§m¯ tI{µ t]meokv tk\sb sImWvSphcWw F¶ 2008 amÀ¨v cWvSnse hn[nbneqsS tImSntbcn _meIrjvWsâ t]meokv cmjv{Sob kzo[o\¯n\p hg§p¶p F¶p tImSXn ]dªn«pw Bcpw cmPnh¨nÃ. F¶n«pw ChnsS A§s\ kw`hn¨m cmPn thWvSnhcpsa¶p tPmÀPv Nn´n¡p¶p.

C¯cw cmPn CÃmXmIp¶Xn\p ImcWw tImSXnIÄ IqSnbmWv. ASp¯Ime¯mbn tImSXnIÄ \S¯p¶ ]e \ocn£W§Ä am{Xaà hn[nIÄ t]mepw taÂt¡mSXnIÄ hfsc ]pÑt¯msS XÅn¡fbp¶pWvSv. apcn§qcnse Unssh³ [ym\tI{µs¯¡pdn¨p tIcf sslt¡mSXn ]pds¸Sphn¨ hn[n XÅn¡fªpsImWvSv kp{]ow tImSXn ]pds¸Sphn¨ hn[nbn sslt¡mSXn hn[nsb hÃmsX Ipäs¸Sp¯pIbpw PUvPnsb hnaÀin¡pIbpw sNbvXp.


e£vaWp ap¶n tIma¬am³ am{Xw

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F.hn. kp\nÂ

km{¼ZmbnIcoXnItfmSpÅ Ielw ImÀ«qWnÌpIfpsS apJap{ZbmsW¦n AXv Gähpw Bg¯n ]XnªpInS¡p¶Xp "tIma¬am³' F¶ Akm[mcW IYm]m{X¯nsâ {kãmhmb BÀ.sI. e£vaWnemIpw. A[nImct¯mSpw AXp krãn¡p¶ AkaXz§tfmSpw {]XnIcn¡m³ P\¡q«w a\kn IcpXnh¨ncp¶ hmNI§fmWv Hcn¡Ât¸mepw kwkmcn¨n«nÃm¯ tIma¬am³ P\kmam\y¯n\pthWvSn kss[cyw hnfn¨p]dªXv.

apwss_ alm\Kc¯nembncp¶p Gsdkabhpw sNehgn¨ncp¶sX¦nepw a{´naµnc§fnepw, s]mXpthZnIfnepw, tNcnIfnepw apX hnZymeb§Ä hscbpÅ P\PohnX¯nsâ FÃm taJeIfnepw {]Xy£s¸« B Úm\hr²³ A[nImc¯nsâ ]n¶nse bmYmÀYy§Ä \ap¡p ImWn¨pX¶p. Bbncw hm¡pIÄ¡p Ignbm¯Xv Hcp hcbv¡p Ignbpsa¶Xp bmYmÀYyam¡pIbmbncp¶p Hmtcm Ahkc¯nepw Cu IYm]m{Xw. Hcp P\m[n]Xykaql¯n tIma¬am³ F{Xam{Xw kzoImcy\mbn F¶p Xncn¨dnbm³ apwss_ hÀfnbn kap{Zt¯mSv apJmapJw \n¡p¶ {]Xnabmbn hsc B IYm]m{Xwamdn F¶Xv HmÀ¯m aXn. BÀ.sI. e£vaWnsâ t]cn cmPys¯hnsSsb¦nepw {]Xna Øm]n¨n«ptWvSm F¶ kwibw \ne\n¡pt¼mgmWv At±l¯nsâ IYm]m{Xw XesbSpt¸msS apwss_ \Kc¯n \nesImÅp¶Xv.

\n§Ä ]dªXv (bp skUv Cäv) F¶mWv e£va¬ Xsâ {]nb IYm]m{Xw {]Xy£s¸Sp¶ ImÀ«qWpIÄ¡p \ÂInb XehmNIw. \mep ZimÐt¯mfw ssSwkv Hm^v C´ybpsS H¶mwt]Pn {]Xy£s¸« Cu \niÐIYm]m{Xw krãn¨ H¨¸mSpIÄ¡v IW¡nÃ. apwss_ \Kc`cWIqSw sNbvXXneptasd tkh\w tIma¬am³ \Kc¯n\pthWvSn sNbvXn«pWvSv. F´nt\sd, s{Sbn\pIÄ sshInbmÂ, A\pIqey§Ä \ntj[n¨mÂhsc ImÀ«qWnÌnsâ Hm^oknte¡v ]cmXn{]fbw F¯p¶ Akm[mcWamb kmlNcywhsc Cu IYm]m{Xw krãn¨p.

apwss_ \Kc¯n At[mtemI kwL§fpsS {]hÀ¯\w iàamb thfbn {]Xy£s¸« Hcp ImÀ«q¬ sXcphn A´nbpd§p¶ km[mcW¡mcpsS PohnXmhØ A[nImcnIfpsS ap¶nse¯n¨Xv HcpZmlcWw. At[mtemI t\Xm¡sf tXSnbnd§nb t]meokv apwss_bnse tNcnbn Iqä³ Ipgente¡p Ibdnbnd§nb Hcmsf tNmZywsNbvXp. F´n\mWp X§sf IWvSv Hfn¨sX¶ t]meoknsâ tNmZy¯n\p Xm\hnsS Hfn¨XÃ, AhnsSbmWv Xm³ Pohn¡p¶sX¶mbncp¶p AbmfpsS adp]Sn. ]Xn\mbnc§Ä sXcphn A´nbpd§p¶ sXcphnsâ bYmÀYNn{X¯ns\m¸w t]meoknsâ I®S¨pÅ \S]Snsbbpw tNmZywsN¿pIbmbncp¶p Cu DÖzecN\bneqsS e£va¬.

IYm]m{X§fpsS \yq\XIsf s]men¸n¨pImWn¡pIsb¶ ImÀ«q¬ IebpsS ASnØm\X¯z§sfÃmw ewLn¡m³ e£vaWp ss[cyw \ÂInbXv Hu]NmcnIambn Nn{Xw hc ]Tn¡m¯XmsW¶v hnebncp¯s¸Sp¶p. IYm]m{X§fpsS bYmÀYcq]w Xs¶bmWv At±l¯nsâ Im³hmkpIfnepw {]Xn^en¨ncp¶Xv. A{Xbv¡p ss\kÀKnIhpw kzm`mhnIhpw A\mbmkhpamb cN\mssienbmbncp¶p e£vatâXv. ]et¸mgpw \Àaw AXnsâ ASnsbmgp¡mbn \ne\n¶ncp¶psh¦nepw e£va¬ IsWvS¯nb \ymbw asäm¶mbncp¶p. \½psS cmjv{Sobt\Xm¡sf At±lw F{Xam{Xw ASp¯dnªp F¶pw B D¯cw sXfnbn¡p¶p.

e£va¬ ]dbp¶p: ImÀ«q¬ cN\bpsS \nba§fn kvs]j ^ot¨gvkv hepXm¡n tcJs¸Sp¯Wsa¶mWp ]dbp¶Xv. F¶mÂ, \½psS t\Xm¡Ä¡v AXnsâ BhiyanÃ. ImcWw Ahsc t\cn«phc¨m¯s¶ Nncn¡m\pÅ hIbpWvSv. A{Xbv¡v henb lmkycq]§fmWv Ahsc¶Wp e£vasâ hne bncp¯Â.

lnµpZn\]{X¯n hnJymX Cw¥ojv ImÀ«qWnÌv tUhnUv tem hc¨ cN\IÄ e£vaWnsâ {i²bnÂs¸«ncp¶p. ktlmZc\pw amÂKpUn Zn\§Ä DÄs¸sS t\mhepIfpsS krãmhpamb aq¯ktlmZc³ BÀ.sI. \mcmb¬ hgn tUhnUv tembpsS taÂhnemkw kwLSn¸n¨v At±lhpambn e£va¬ ]cnNb¯nembn.

cmPyw kzmX{´yw t\SnbhÀjw _ncpZkÀ«n^n¡äpw Akm[mcWamb \Àat_m[hpw ImIZrãnbpapÅ BÀ.sI. e£va¬ apwss_bn hWvSnbnd§n. 1952  tembpw `mcybpw aIsf ImWm³ tlmt¦mwKn t]mIpw hgn apws_bnend§n. e£va¬ A§s\ Xsâ Bcm[\m]m{Xs¯ BZyambn IWvSp. At±l¯nsâ D]tZiw ImÀ«qWnÌv e£va¬ F¶ taÂhnemkw IqSpX hn]pes¸Sp¯m³ e£vaWns\ klmbn¨p.

{^o{]kv tPÀWenÂ\n¶v cWvSphÀjs¯ tkh\¯n\ptijw ssSwkv Hm^v C´ybnte¡v At±lw amdn. ]ns¶ ssSwkv H^v C´ybpw BÀ.sI. e£vaWpw hgnamdnbn«nÃ. HSphn Imew thÀ]ncn¡pwhsc. {]ikvXcpsS acW¯n\p ]n¶mse Xbmdm¡p¶ Nca¡pdn¸pIfn AhÀ sNbvX hocIrXy§Ä (A§s\ hÃXpw sNbvXn«psWvS¦nÂ) hnhcn¡p¶Xv Hcp km{¼ZmbnI coXnbmWv. hyhØm]nXamb coXnItfmsSÃmw Ieln¨ BÀ.sI. e£vatWmSpw \½Ä AXpX¶ sNbvXp. F¶pw tZmssjIZr¡pw Aip`m]vXn hnizmknbpambn XpScm\mWv Cãsa¶v kzbw Gäp]dª Hcmfmbncp¶p e£va¬ F¶XmWv F¦nepw. BÀ¡pw amXrIbmIm³ Xm\nsöv kzbw {]Jym]n¨v apwss_bnse ssSwkv Hm^v C´y sI«nS¯nsâ aq¶mw \nebnse sNdnb apdnbnencp¶v XeXncnª temIs¯ t\m¡n ]cnlkn¡pIbmbncp¶p, GI\mbn.

tZiob]£nbmb abnens\bpw ]©hÀW\ndapÅ X¯sbbpw XÅn¸dªp Iqcncn«nsâ InSm¯nbmb Im¡sb {]Wbn¨Xv At±l¯nsâ ImgvN¸mSn\v D¯a DZmlcWw. abn _p²niq\y\pw hr¯nsI«h\pamsW¶p ]dª e£va¬ ]©hÀ®apÅ X¯sb shdp¸msW¶pw ]dªp. F¶m a\pjysâ Nne kz`mh KpW§Ä Im¡IÄ¡psWvS¶pw \nco£n¡p¶p. D¨ab¡w, IrXykabs¯ tZlip²n, {]iv\§Ä DWvSmIpt¼mÄ H¯ptNc XpS§n FÃm kXvKpW§fpw At±lw Im¡bn IsWvS¯p¶p. s]mXpkaqlw BtLmjn¡p¶ ]eXpw Hcp ImÀ«qWnÌn\v sh dpw s]m§¨ambn tXm¶mw, ImIZrãntbmsS kaqls¯ \ocn£n¡Wsa¶pam{Xw. cmPys¯ cmjv{Sob kmaqlytaJeIsf Ignª Bdc]XnämtWvSmfw BÀ.sI.e£va¬ \nco£n¨Xpw Cu coXnbnembncp¶p.


t]m¡äv ImÀ«qWpIfpsS Ipe]Xn

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tUm. kt´mjv thc\m\n

cmkn]pcw IrjvWkzman A¿À e£va¬ F¶ BÀ.sI. e£va¬ 92þmw hbkn hnShm§nbt¸mÄ C´y³ ]{XtemI¯n\p \ãambXp Ipdn¡psImÅp¶ Bt£]lmky¯neqsS Bdp ]XnämWvSv P\§sf Nncn¸n¡pIbpw Nn´n¸n¡pIbpw sNbvX A]qÀh hyànXzs¯bmWv.

ssakqdnse Hcp kvIqÄ amÌdpsS F«p a¡fn Hcmfmbn 1921 ]nd¶ e£va¬ apwss_bnse¯nbtXmSpIqSnbmWv C´ybn t]m¡äv ImÀ«qWpIfpsS Ipe]Xnbmbn amdnb Bsf e`n¡p¶Xv. {]kn²amb sP.sP. BÀSvkv kvIqfn Nn{XIe ]Tn¡ms\¯nb e£vaWp \ncmibmbncp¶p ^ew. Nn{XIebn hmk\bnà F¶p]dªp Xncn¨bbv¡s¸«p. B BÀ.sI. e£va¬ ]n¶oSv C´y³ t]m¡äv ImÀ«qWnsâ BNmcy\mbn amdnsb¶Xp Ncn{X¯nsâ \ntbmKamImw.

Xncn¨p ssakqdnse¯nb e£va¬ almcmPmkv tImfPnÂ\n¶p _ncpZsaSp¯p. _ncpZ]T\t¯msSm¸w tPyjvT\mb BÀ.sI. \mcmbWsâ "amÂKpUn tUbvkv' F¶ t\mhensâ t]mÀsSbväv lnµp Zn\]{X¯nepw hc¨psImWvSncp¶p. AtXmsSm¸wXs¶ »nävknepw CÃkvt{SäUv ho¡venbnepw C´ybnepw {^oem³kmbn ImÀ«qWpIÄ hcbv¡p¶Xp XpSÀ¶p. 1946 apwss_bnÂ\n¶pÅ {^o {]kv tPÀWen tNÀ¶p. AhnsS klImÀ«qWnÌmbncp¶ _mÂXm¡tdbpambpÅ kulrZw Xm¡tdbpsS acWwhscbpw XpSÀ¶ncp¶p.

1948 ssSwkv Hm^v C´ybn tNÀ¶ e£va¬ 1951 hc¨pXpS§nb "bq skUv Cäv' F¶ ImÀ«q¬ At±ls¯ {]ikvX\m¡n amän. AXnse apJyIYm]m{Xamb tIma¬am³ (km[mcW¡mc³) FÃm¯n\pw \niÐkm£nbmWv. Bt£]¯nsâ Iqc¼pIÄ B ImÀ«qWpIfneqsS ]pd¯ph¶p. 1951 apX 2009 At±l¯n\v cWvSmw XhW akvXnjvImLmXw hcp¶Xphsc B hc XpSÀ¶p.

BÀ.sI. e£vasâ hnaÀi\¯nsâ A¼pItfähcn PhlÀem s\lvdp, CµncmKmÔn, samdmÀPn tZimbn XpS§n kaql¯nsâ \m\mXpdIfnepÅhcpWvSmbncp¶p. ImÀ«qWnÌv i¦À DÄs¸sSbpÅhÀ KmÔns¯m¸n h¨ s\lvdphns\ hc¨t¸mgpw AXnÃm¯ s\lvdphns\ hcbv¡m\mWv e£va¬ Cãs¸«Xv. Hcn¡Â t\cn«p IWvS s\lvdphnt\mSv At±lw ]dªXp tkmjyenÌv Nn´mKXnIfpambn \S¡p¶ Xm¦Ä¡p KmÔns¯m¸n H«pw CW¡amhnà F¶mWv. ASnb´cmhØbn P\§Ä X\n¡p ]n¶nepsWvS¶p ]dª CµncmKmÔn¡pw In«n Bt£]ic§Ä.

C´y³ kaqls¯ C{X Bg¯n kzm[o\n¨ asämcp ImÀ«q¬ IYm]m{Xw tIma¬ams\t¸mse thsdbnà F¶pXs¶ ]dbmw. AXpsImWvSmhmw ]qs\bn knw_tbmknkv kÀhIemimem ]cnkc¯p tIma¬amsâ 16 ASn DbcapÅ sh¦e {]Xna 2001 A\mÑmZ\w sN¿s¸«Xv. apwss_bnepw tIma¬am³ {]Xna ]WnXn«pWvSv. 1988 ssSwkv Hm^v C´ybpsS 150þmw hmÀjnImtLmj§fpsS `mKambn ]pd¯nd¡nb X]m Ìm¼nepw tIma¬am³ CSw]nSn¨p. tIma¬amsâ hcIfpÅ tIm«pw apWvSpw IjWvSnbpff Xebpw C´ybn Bg¯n kzm[o\w sNep¯n.

e£vaWpw At±l¯nsâ kl{]hÀ¯I\mbncp¶ acntbm andm³Ubpw tNÀs¶mcp¡nb Bt£]lmky¯nsâ shSns¡«v ssSwkv Hm^v C´ysb C´ybnse ap³\nc ]{Xam¡p¶Xn hfsc klmbn¨p. 1997 apX IfÀ {]nânte¡p ssSwkv Hm^v C´y amdnsb¦nepw bq skUv Cäv F¶ t]m¡äv ImÀ«q¬ Idp¸nepw shfp¸nepw Xs¶ XpSÀ¶p.

1985 BÀ.sI. e£va¬ BWv eWvS\n Hcp FIvkn_nj³ kwLSn¸n¡p¶ BZy C´y¡mc³. At±l¯nsâ _meyIme Bcm[\maqÀ¯nIfmbncp¶ {]kn² ImÀ«qWnÌpIfmb tUhnUv tembns\bpw CÃnwKvhÀ¯ns\bpw eWvS\nÂh¨v IWvSpap«m³ At±l¯n\p km[n¨p.

ImÀ«q¬ cwKs¯ kw`mh\IÄ IW¡nseSp¯p ]Zva`qj¬, ]Zvahn`qj¬ _lpaXnIÄ¡p e£va¬ AÀl\mbn. C´y³ FIvkv{]knsâ _n.Un. tKmb¦ AhmÀUpw lnµpØm³ ssSwknsâ ZpÀKm c¯³ tKmÄUv saUepw At±ls¯ tXSnsb¯n.

BÀ.sI. e£vasâ kw`mh\bmbn cWvSp t\mhepIfpw hcnIbpWvSmbnþ tlm«Â dnthdnb, Zn sak©À F¶nh. "SW Hm^v ssSw' F¶ t]cn Cw¥ojn {]kn²oIcn¨ BßIY "e£va¬ tcJ' F¶ t]cn adm¯nbnte¡v samgnamäw \S¯pIbpWvSmbn. C´y³ ]{X{]hÀ¯\¯nsâ kzmX{´ym\´cIme Ncn{Xw IqSnbmWp e£vaWnsâ BßIY.

1984 ]{X{]hÀ¯\¯n\pÅ amKvktk AhmÀUpw At±ls¯ tXSnsb¯n. 2004 HmWddn tUmÎtdäv \evIn ssakqÀ kÀhIemimebpw At±ls¯ BZcn¨p. cWvSp hnhml§Ä Ign¨n«pÅ e£vaWnsâ cWvSp `mcyamcpsS t]cpw Iae F¶mbncp¶p.


C´y³ P\m[n]Xy¯nsâ hnip²]pkvXIw `cWLS\

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Adp]¯mdmw dn¸»nIv Zn\w {]amWn¨p cmjv{S]Xn {]Wm_v apJÀPn cmjv{St¯mSmbn \S¯nb {]kwKw.

Fsâ kl]uc·mtc,

Adp]¯mdmw dn¸»nIv Zn\¯nsâ Xte¶mÄ, C´ybnepw hntZi¯papÅ \n§Äs¡ÃmhÀ¡pw Rm³ Dujvafamb BiwkIÄ t\cp¶p. kmbp[tk\Ifnsebpw AÀ[ssk\nI hn`mK§fnsebpw B`y´c kpc£m tk\Ifnsebpw AwK§sf Rm³ {]tXyIambn A`nhmZyw sN¿p¶p.

B[p\nI C´y P·w sImWvS \mÄ F¶ \nebv¡p P\phcn 26\v \½psS tZiob kvarXn]Y¯n A\izcamb Øm\apWvSv. almßmKmÔnbpsS [mÀanI, cmjv{Sob t\XrXz¯n\p Iogn \mjW tIm¬{Kkv {_n«ojv `cW¯n \n¶p ]qÀW kzmX{´yw Bhiys¸Sp¶ ]qÀW kzcmPv {]tabw 1929 Unkw_dn ]mkm¡n. 1930 P\phcn 26\v kzmX{´yZn\sa¶ \nebn KmÔnPn tZihym]Iambn BtLmj]cn]mSnIÄ kwLSn¸n¨p. A¶p apX FÃm hÀjhpw CtX Znhkw kzmX{´yw e`n¡pwhsc kzmX{´ykacw XpScpsa¶p cmPysam¶S¦w {]XnÚsbSp¯p t]m¶p.

IrXyw 20 hÀj¯n\ptijw, 1950Â, `cWLS\sb¶ \½psS B[p\nIXbpsS {]amW]{X¯n\p \mw AwKoImcw \ÂIn. CXn\pw cWvSp hÀjw ap¼v KmÔnPn ZmcpWambn càkm£nXzw hcns¨¦nepw, C¶s¯ temI¯v C´ysb Hcp BZÀiamXrIbm¡n XoÀ¯ `cWLS\bpsS N«¡qSv At±l¯nsâ X¯zimkv{X§fnÂ\n¶p \nÀans¨Sp¯Xmbncp¶p. AXnsâ k¯ \mep X¯z§fn A[njvTnXamWv: P\m[n]Xyw, hnizmk kzmX{´yw, enwKkaXzw; ISp¯ Zmcn{Zy¯nÂs]«pgep¶hÀ¡p km¼¯nI D¶Xn. ChsbÃmw `cWLS\m]camb _m[yXIfm¡s¸«p. cmPys¯ `cWm[nImcnIÄ¡p KmÔnPn \ÂInb efnXhpw iàhpamb `mKykqàw Rm³ D²cn¡s«: \n§Ä Ft¸msgms¡ kwibm[o\\mIp¶pthm, At¸mÄ \n§Ä IWvSn«pÅ Cu cmPys¯ Gähpw Zcn{Z\pw ZpÀ_e\pamb a\pjysâ apJw HmÀ¡pI, F¶n«p kzbw tNmZn¡pI, CXp hni¡p¶hcpw Bßob]camb ]«nWn A\p`hn¡p¶hcpamb Zie£¡W¡n\mfpIfpsS kzmX{´y¯nte¡p \bn¡ptam? ka{K hnIk\¯neqsS Zmcn{Zy \nÀamÀP\w \S¯p¶Xn\pÅ \½psS \nÝbZmÀVyw Cu hgn¡pÅ NphSphbv]mIWw.

t]mbhÀjw ]ehn[¯n khntijambncp¶p. {]tXyIX Fs´¶mÂ, aq¶p Zim_vZ¯n\ptijw cmPys¯ P\§Ä Hcp ]mÀ«n¡v Häbv¡p `qcn]£w \ÂIn kpØnc Kh¬saâv DWvSm¡p¶Xn\v A[nImc¯nteäpIbpw AXphgn cmPys¯ `cWs¯ Iq«pI£n cmjv{Sob¯nsâ k½ÀZ§fn \n¶p tamNn¸n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. CXneqsS sXcsªSp¡s¸« Kh¬saân\v AhcpsS `qcn]£w D]tbmKn¨v, P\§Ä¡p \ÂInb hmKvZm\§Ä \ndthäp¶Xn\pÅ \b§Ä cq]oIcn¡p¶Xn\pw \nba\nÀamWw \S¯n Cu \b§Ä \S¸nem¡p¶Xn\papÅ A[nImcw \ÂIn. thm«ÀamÀ AhcpsS NpaXe \nÀhln¨p; C\n AhcpsS hnizmks¯ BZcn¡pIsb¶Xp sXcsªSp¡s¸«hcpsS ISabmWv.

{]hÀ¯\£aamb \nba\nÀamW k`bnÃmsX `cWapWvSmhnÃ. kmwkvImcnI kwhmZ¯neqsSbpÅ ]ptcmKa\mßIamb \nba\nÀamWw hgn P\m`nemjw \ndthäp¶Xn\pÅ kwhn[m\w krãn¡s¸tSWvS thZnbmWXv. _Ôs¸« I£nIÄ X½nepÅ A`n{]mbhyXymk§Ä ]cnlcn¨v, \nba\nÀamW¯n A`n{]mbka\zbw km[yam¡Wsa¶pw AXv Bhiys¸Sp¶p. NÀ¨ IqSmsX \nba§Ä {]m_ey¯n hcp¯p¶Xp ]mÀesaânsâ \nba\nÀamW ]Zhnsb _m[n¡pw. ]mÀesaân P\§Ä AÀ¸n¨n«pÅ hnizmks¯ AXp XIÀ¡pw. CXp P\m[n]Xy¯nt\m A¯cw \nba§fpambn _Ôs¸« \b§Ät¡m KpWIcaÃ.

]WvUnäv PhlÀem s\lvdp, kÀZmÀ ]t«Â, kp`mjv N{µ t_mkv, `KXv knwKv, cho{µ\mY SmtKmÀ, kp{_ÒWy `mcXn XpS§nb Ht«sdt¸À¡v, hyXykvX§fmb {]hÀ¯\coXnIfpw kao]\§fpw DWvSmbncps¶¦nepw AhscÃmw ]dªXp tZikvt\l¯nsâ `mjbmWv. tZiobXbpsS Cu almßm¡fmb tk\m\nItfmSp \½psS kzmX{´y¯n\p \mw ISs¸«ncn¡p¶p. `mcXamXmhnsâ hntamN\¯n\mbn Poh³ _enbÀ¸n¨ Adnbs¸Sm¯ hoc\mbIscbpw \mw A`nhmZyw sN¿p¶p. F¶mÂ, kv{Xokpc£bpsS Imcy¯n `mcXamXmhns\ kz´w a¡Ä _lpam\n¡p¶nà F¶Xv Fs¶ thZ\n¸n¡p¶p. am\`wK§Ä, sIme]mXI§Ä, bm{X¡nSbnse ]oU\§Ä, X«ns¡mWvSpt]mIÂ, kv{Xo[\ acW§Ä F¶nh kv{XoIÄ¡p kz´w hoSn\pÅnepw t]mepw `bw krjvSn¡p¶p.

cho{µ\mY SmtKmÀ kv{XoIsf IpSp_¯nsâ tZhXamÀ Bbn am{Xaà Bßmhnsâ \mf§fmbpw IWvSp. \½psS Ip«nIÄ kv{XoItfmSpÅ A´kpä s]cpamä¯nsâbpw _lpam\¯nsâbpw ASnØm\ X¯z§Ä ad¶pt]mIp¶ hn[¯n c£IÀ¯m¡Ä, A[ym]IÀ, t\Xm¡Ä F¶o \neIfn \mw FhnsSbmWp ]cmPbs¸«Xv? \½Ä \nch[n \nba§Ä \S¸m¡n, ]t£ s_©an³ {^m¦vfn³ Hcn¡Â ]dªXpt]mse, _m[nXcÃm¯hcpw _m[nXsct¸mse {]Xntj[n¡pwhsc \oXn \S¸m¡s¸Sp¶nÃ. GXpXcw AXn{Ia¯n \n¶pw kv{XoIfpsS A`nam\s¯ kwc£n¡psa¶v FÃm C´y¡mcpw {]XnÚ sN¿Ww. kv{XoIsf BZcn¡pIbpw, imàoIcn¡pIbpw sNbvX cmjv{S§Ä am{Xta temIiànIfmbn amdnbn«pÅp.

P\m[n]Xy¯nsâ hnip²]pkvXIamWv C´y³ `cWLS\. sshhn[y§sf BtLmjn¡pIbpw, klnjvWpXbv¡mbn hmZn¡pIbpw hyXykvX kapZmb§Ä¡nSbnse kulmÀZw t{]mÕmln¡pIbpw sNbvX kwkvImcapÅ C´ybpsS, kmaqlnIþkm¼¯nI ]cnhÀ¯\ {]{Inbbn {[ph\£{Xambn \n¶Xv Cu `cWLS\bmWv. F¶ncp¶mepw Cu aqey§sf \mw AXoh {i²tbmsSbpw Pm{KXtbmsSbpw kwc£n¡Ww. cmjv{Sob kwhmZ§Ä, [mÀanIXbv¡p hncp²ambn, D·mZ¯nsâ {]IS\§fmbn amdpt¼mÄ, P\m[n]Xy¯n A´Àeo\amb kzmX{´yw, Ak´pjvS§fmb Dt]mXv]¶§sf krjvSn¡p¶p. hm¡pIfnse lnwkmßIX P\lrZb§fn apdnth¸n¡p¶p. KmÔnPn ]dªXpt]mse aXw Hcpabv¡mbpÅ iànbmWv, AXns\ kwL«\¯n\pÅ ImcWam¡n amäcpXv.

C´ybpsS arZpem[nImc ioew tIgvhn tI«XmWv. aäp \nch[n cmPy§Ä aXmßI lnwkbnte¡p ap§n¯mgpt¼mÄ, hnizmk¯n\pw `cW]²Xn¡panSbnse _Ôs¯¡pdn¨pÅ \½psS \nÀhN\w Cu arZpem[nImc ioe¯nsâ iàamb DZmlcWamWv. FÃm hnizmk§fpw \nba¯n\pap¶n Xpeyam¡ns¡mWvSpw FÃm kwkvImc§fpw ]ckv]cw ka\zbn¸n¨psImWvSpw A\pIqeamb DuÀPw krjvSn¡p¶ Xcw hnizmk kaXz¯n \mw FÃmbvt¸mgpw {]Xymi AÀ¸n¡p¶p. sFIaXyw iànbmsW¶pw B[n]Xyw ZuÀ_eyamsW¶pw BÀj`mcX kwkvImcw \s½ ]Tn¸n¡p¶p.

cmjv{S§Ä X½nepÅ kwLÀj§Ä AXnÀ¯nIsf cà¡fam¡nbncn¡p¶p. `oIcXsb hn\miIcamb Hcp hyhkmbam¡n AXp amänbncn¡p¶p. `oIcXbpw A{Iahpw \½psS AXnÀ¯n¡pÅnte¡pw ISs¶¯nbncn¡p¶p. kam[m\w, Alnwk, \à Ab¸¡ CwKnX§Ä F¶nh \½psS hntZi \b¯nsâ `mKambncns¡Xs¶, k¼Âkar²hpw ]£]mXclnXhpamb Hcp C´ybnte¡pÅ \½psS ]ptcmKXnbn XSkw krãn¡p¶ {]XntbmKnIÄs¡Xnsc Aew`mht¯msSbncn¡m³ \ap¡mhnÃ. \½psS P\§Äs¡Xncmb Cu bp²¯nsâ in¸nIsf tXm¸n¡m\pÅ iànbpw Bßhnizmkhpw \nÝbZmÀVyhpw \ap¡pWvSv. \nb{´WtcJbnepS\ofw \S¡p¶ XpSÀ¨bmb shSn\nÀ¯Â IcmÀ ewL\§Ä¡pw `oIcm{IaW§Ä¡pw aqÀ¨bpÅ \bX{´w hgnbpw, A{]Xntcm[yamb kpc£mkwhn[m\§sfmcp¡nbpw adp]Sn \ÂIWw. `oIcXsb¶ hn]¯ns\Xncmb t]mcm«¯n temIw C´ytbmsSm¸w tNcWw.

km¼¯nI ]ptcmKXn F¶Xp P\m[n]Xy¯nsâ Hcp ]co£ IqSnbmWv. 2015 {]Xo£ \ÂIp¶ hÀjamWv. {][m\ km¼¯nI kqNI§sfÃmw hfsc {]Xo£ \ÂIp¶p. hntZi\mWytiJc¯nsâ iàns¸SÂ, km¼¯nI kamlcW¯nte¡pÅ \o¡w, hne\nehmcw \nb{´n¡Â, \nÀamWtaJebpsS IpXn¸v, Ignª hÀjs¯ dnt¡mÀUv ImÀjnI D¸mZ\w F¶nh \½psS km¼¯nI hyhØbv¡v ip`kqNI§fmWv. 2014þ15 km¼¯nI hÀj¯nsâ BZy cWvSp]mZ§fnepw A©p iXam\¯n IqSpX hfÀ¨m\nc¡v ssIhcn¡m³ km[n¨Xv Ggp apX F«p hsc hfÀ¨m\ncs¡¶ \½psS e£y¯nte¡pÅ bm{Xbv¡p {]Xo£ ]Icp¶p.

Hcp kaql¯nsâ hnPbw Af¡p¶Xv AXnsâ aqey§fpsSbpw Øm]\§fpsSbpw `cW D]IcW§fpsSbpw \ne\n¸nsâbpw AXnPoh\¯nâbpw ASnØm\¯nemWv. \½psS tZiob BJym\w cq]s¸«Xv AXnsâ `qXImes¯ X¯z§fneqsSbpw C¶s¯ hnPb§fneqsSbpamWv. A´Àeo\amb iàn¡p Icpt¯Ins¡mWvSv Ct¸mgXp `mhnsb kz´am¡m³ Xbmdmbn¡gnªp.

]T\w, cmPykvt\lw, Zb, kXykÔX, D¯chmZn¯zt_m[w F¶nhbm t_m[hXvIcn¡s¸« XeapdIsf hfÀ¯nsbSp¡pIbpw C´y¡mcpsS PohnX\nehmcw ]Xn·S§v hÀ[n¸n¡pIbpw sN¿pI F¶XmWp \½psS tZiob A`nemjw. tXmakv sPt^gvk¬ Hcn¡Â ]dªn«pWvSv: “”P\§Ä¡p hnZym`ymkhpw Adnhpw sImSp¡q. \½psS kzmX{´yw kwc£n¡s¸Sp¶Xn\pÅ Htcsbmcp Ahew_amWXv.’ 21þmw \qämWvSnse sshÚm\nI t\Xm¡Ä¡nSbn kao]`mhnbn \ap¡p \½psS Øm\w t\SnsbSp¡p¶Xn\p \½psS hnZym`ymk Øm]\§fn Gähpw DbÀ¶ KpW\nehmc¯n\mbn \ap¡p ]cn{ian¡mw.

¢mkv apdnIÄ¡p ]pdt¯¡p hnÚm\s¯ sImWvSpt]mIp¶ Xc¯nepÅXpw C¶t¯¡p {]tbmP\{]ZambhbpsS am\knI]ncnapdp¡¯n \n¶p `mh\sb kzX{´am¡p¶Xpamb ]pkvXI§fpsSbpw hmb\bpsSbpw kwkvImc¯n\p \mw {]tXyI Du¶Â sImSp¡Wsa¶p Rm³ A`yÀYn¡pIbmWv. F®aä Bib\ZnIfpsS kwtbmP\¯m ]cnt]mjn¸n¡s¸« kÀKmßI P\XbmIWw \mw. ssI¸¯nbn kq£n¡mhp¶ Iw]yq«dn\pÅn hn]peamb Ahkc§Ä Im¯ncn¡p¶, aXnepIfnÃm¯ Hcp {KÙimeXs¶bmbn amdnb IvfuUv kmt¦XnIhnZybnepw Bibhn\nab¯nepw B[n]Xyw t\Sm³ \½psS bphm¡Ä hgn Im«Ww. 21þmw \qämWvSv C´ybpsS ssI¸nSnbnemWv.

kmaqlnIXn·Ifnepw ]n´ncn¸³ioe§fnepw \n¶p \s½ XpSÀ¨bmbn ip²oIcn¡p¶Xn\pÅ Ignhv \mw IsWvS¯nbnsænÂ, Cu `mhn Htckabw Zriyhpw ]nSnsImSp¡m¯Xpambn \nesImÅpw. Ignª \qämWvSn\nsS NneÀ acWaSªp, NneÀ \ndwa§n, ]t£ ]ecpw C¶pw Ahtijn¡p¶p. Z£nWm{^n¡bn \n¶p KmÔnPn C´ybnte¡p Xncns¨¯nbXnsâ iXmÐn Cu hÀjw \mw BtLmjn¡pIbmWv. Cu almßmhn \n¶pÅ ]T\w \aps¡mcn¡epw Ahkm\n¸n¡m\mhnÃ. At±l¯nsâ amXrI ]n´pScp¶Xv A`nejWobamWv. 1901þ KmÔnPn \m«nte¡v BZyambn h¶t¸mÄ F´v sNbvXp F¶Xn \mw It®mSn¡Ww. B hÀjs¯ hmÀjnI tIm¬{Kkv kt½f\w \S¶Xv {_n«ojv C´ybpsS A¶s¯ XeØm\ambncp¶ I¡«bnembncp¶p. KmÔnPn AXnsemcp {]Xn\n[nbmbncp¶p.

dn¸¬ tImfPn Hcp kt½f\¯n\mbn At±lw sN¶p. AhnsS At±lw IWvSXv Xsâ kl{]Xn\n[nIfm B {]tZiw apgph³ aen\am¡s¸«XmWv. kvXÏ\mb KmÔnPn, X\n¡pthWvSn A\phZn¨ GsX¦nepw ipNoIcW sXmgnemfn¡mbn Im¯p\n¶nÃ. Hcp NqseSp¯v At±lw B {]tZiw hr¯nbm¡n. 1901þ Bcpw At±l¯nsâ amXrI ]n´pSÀ¶nÃ. 114 hÀj¯n\ptijw \ap¡v B amXrI ]n´pSÀ¶psImWvSp alm\mb Hcp ]nXmhnsâ t{ijvTcmb a¡fmImw.

Pbv lnµv.






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