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tbmK Ifntbm sIWntbm?

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A\´]pcn/ ZznP³


tbmK hymbmaapdtbm, aXmNmctam, sIWntbm? tbmK aXmNmcasöpw DuÀPkzeamb PohnX¯n\pÅ imkv{XamsW¶pw {][m\a{´n \tc{µ tamZn¡pw tIcf¯nsâ apJya{´n ]nWdmbn hnPb\pw Htc A`n{]mbw. A´ÀtZiob tbmKmZn\t¯mS\p_Ôn¨p Pq¬ 21 \p tbmKsb¡pdn¨p tamZnbpw ]nWdmbnbpw \S¯nb Cu hnebncp¯epIÄ CcphÀ¡pw tbmKbnepÅ XmXv]cyhpw aäpÅhcn tbmKbneqsS kzm[o\w sNep¯m\pÅ tamlhpw adbnÃmsX hyàam¡p¶p. tbmKtbmSv B[p\nI kaql¯n DWvSmbncn¡p¶ A`n\nthi¯nsâ t]cn IayqWnÌv ]mÀ«nbn \n¶p kJm¡fmcpw sImgnbmXncn¡m\tà ]nWdmbn tbmKbpsS henb hàmhmbncn¡p¶Xv?

tbmK aXmNmcasöpw DuÀPkzeamb PohnX¯n\pÅ imkv{XamsW¶pw hmZn¡p¶ tamZnbmIs« DuÀPkze PohnXw tamln¡p¶ sslµhcÃm¯ kaqls¯ e£yw hbv¡p¶p. Chn sSbmWv sIWn.

tamZnsbt¸mse Znhkhpw tbmKm`ymkw \S¯p¶ BfmWp ]nWdmbnbpw. X§fpsS BtcmKy¯nsâbpw DuÀPkzeXbpsSbpw ]n¶n tbmKbmsW¶p hnizkn¡p¶hcmWv cWvSmfpw. AXpsImWvSp `mcX¯nemsI tbmKbv¡p henb {]NmcWw sImSp¡Wsa¶p {][m\a{´n tamZn B{Kln¡pt¼mÄ tIcf¯nse kvIqfpIfn tbmK ]cnioe\w Bcw`n¡psa¶p ]nWdmbnbpw {]Jym]n¡p¶p. Xm³ A`ykn¡p¶ tbmK aXmNmcasöp Øm]n¡m³ Ccphcpw {ian¡pt¼mÄ tamZn¡pÅXp aX]camb XmXv]cyhpw ]nWdmbn¡pÅXp IayqWnÌv XmXv]cyhpw BsW¶v BÀ¡mWdnbm¯Xv! tbmKsb Hcp hymbmaapdbmbn IWvSm aXnsb¶pw AXns\ BßobXbpambn _Ôs¸Sp¯m³ NneÀ \S¯p¶ \o¡w icnbsöpw ]nWdmbn ]dbpt¼mÄ Xm³ A\pjvTn¡p¶ tbmK Hcp aX]camb BNmcamsW¶p k½Xn¡p¶Xnse B]¯pw tbmKsb FXnÀ¯m ]mÀ«n¡pWvSmImhp¶ \jvShpw a\knem¡p¶ ISp¯ IayqWnÌpImc\mb t\Xmhnsâ X\n\ndamWv A\mhcWw sN¿p¶sX¦n DuÀPkzeamb PohnX¯n\pthWvSn tbmKbv¡mbn hmZn¡p¶ tamZnbpsS ImhnhXvIcW e£yhpw A\mhcWw sN¿s¸Sp¶p.

lnµp PohnX{Ia¯nsebpw hnizmk¯nsebpw Hcp Nn´m[mcbmWp tbmK F¶p sslµh ]WvUnXÀ ]dbp¶p. \ymb, sshtijnI, kmwJy, tbmK, aoamwk, thZm´ F¶nhbmWp sslµhhnizmk¯nse BkvXnI ZÀi\§Ä. NmÀhmI, ssP\, _p² ZÀi\§sf X¯zimkv{X¯nse \mkvXnI ZÀi\§fmbpw IW¡m¡p¶p. Bßob km£mXvImc¯n\pÅ ]mXbmWp tbmK F¶Xp kmÀh{XnIambn AwKoIcn¡s¸« sslµh \ne]mSmWv.

Cu ]Ým¯e¯nemWp tamZnbpw ]nWdmbnbpw ]dbp¶ tbmKm kvXpXnIfn sIWnbpsWvS¶p hyàamIp¶Xv. {ioIrjvWPb´ntbmSv A\p_Ôn¨v Ip«nIfpsS tim`mbm{XIÄ kwLSn¸n¨p _nsP]n Bfp]nSn¡m³ {ian¨t¸mÄ _Z dmenIÄ \S¯n Ip«nIÄ¡v Ahkcw DWvSm¡m³ kn]nFw \S¯nb {iaw t]mse H¶mWp tbmK ]cn]mSnIfpw. _nsP]nbpsS sIWnIÄ a\knemIm¯ tIm¬{KkpImsc t]mepÅhÀ AhcpsS ]cn]mSnIfpambn klIcn¨v kz´w AWnIsf AhcpsS IqSmc§fn F¯n¨psImSp¡p¶p.

temI tbmKm Zn\t¯mSv A\p_Ôn¨p tIcf¯n \S¶ IfnItfmSp a{´n sI.sI. ssieP Pm{KXtbmsS {]XnIcn¨Xpw X§fmWp `cn¨ncp¶sX¦n A§s\ kw`hn¡nÃmbncp¶p F¶v AtX¡pdn¨v D½³ NmWvSn ]dªXpw cWvSp {]Øm\§fpw _nsP]n X{´§sf t\cnSp¶Xn ]peÀ¯p¶ Pm{KXbpsS km£yw IqSnbmbn. tbmKmZn\w _nsP]n ]cn]mSn BIcpsX¶ t_m[amb Xocpam\t¯msSbmWp kÀ¡mÀ \o¡§Ä \S¯nbXv. X§Ä Dt±in¡p¶ tbmKm tIcfkÀ¡mÀ sNehn \S¡m\nSbnsöp a\knemb _nsP]n tIcf LSIw tbmKmZn\¯n\p {]tXyI ]cn]mSnIÄ kwLSn¸n¨Xv AhcpsS a\knse KqVe£y§fpsS ASbmfamWv.

CcpIq«cpw icn¡pw Ifn¨XpsImWvSp tIcf kÀ¡mcnsâ sk¡peÀ tbmKbpw tI{µ kÀ¡mcnsâ ]XRvPen tbmKbpw aÕcn¨v Act§dn. sk¡peÀ tbmKbv¡pÅ tIcf kÀ¡mcnsâ FÃm \o¡§sfbpw kÀ¡mÀ Xe¯n Xs¶ Hcp DtZymKس \new]cnim¡n. BtcmKya{´n ssieP ]s¦Sp¯ kwØm\Xe NS§n ]XRvPen tbmKbnse IoÀ¯\w Be]n¨psImWvSv At±lw a{´nsb sR«n¨p. tbmK ¢mkpIfnse IoÀ¯\§Ä H¶pw {i²n¡msX GäpsNmÃn kmbqPyw ASbp¶hcmWv AXns\¯p¶hcn `qcn`mKhpw. F¶mÂ, a{´n ssieP {i²tbmsS NS§n kw_Ôn¨p. ]cn]mSnbpsS `mKambn DbÀ¶ ]XRvPen IoÀ¯\w kÀ¡mÀ tbmKsb sslµham¡p¶p F¶v AhÀ¡v a\knembn. AhÀ At¸mÄ Xs¶ AaÀjw ImWn¨p.

kuayambn s]cpamdp¶Xn {i²n¡mdpÅ ssieP So¨À A§s\ {]XnIcn¨Xv AhcpsS \ne]mSnsâ IrXyXbmbn. AhcpsS {]XnIcW¯nsâ Im¼v ]ecpw Xncn¨dnªnÃ. AhcpsS hm¡pIfn \n¶pw ]n¶oSp \S¯nb hniZoIcW¯n \n¶pw hyàambXpt]mse IoÀ¯\w ]mSnbXns\ Aà AhÀ FXnÀ¯Xv. \mkvXnI BbXpsImWvSpÅ FXnÀ¸pw Bbncp¶ncn¡nÃ. FÃm aX¡mÀ¡pw ]mSmhp¶ Hcp IoÀ¯\w F¶mWv AhÀ ]dªXv. "AktXm am kXvKab' t]mepÅ IoÀ¯\tam \½psS kvIqfpIfn ]mSnbncp¶ ssZhta ssIsXmgmw tIÄ¡pamdmIWw... F¶ ]m«p t]mse Ht¶m BhWw AhÀ IcpXnbXv. C¯cw s]mXp]cn]mSnIfn GsX¦nepw Hcp aX¯nse ssZhs¯ hnfn¨p {]mÀYn¨m NS§n ]s¦Sp¡p¶ \mkvXnItc¡mÄ AkzØX aäp aX¡mÀ¡v DWvSmhpw F¶ kXyw a{´n Xncn¨dnªp F¶p IcpXmw.

a{´nbpsS {]XnIcWs¯ \yq\]£ {]oW\tam `btam Bbn hymJym\n¡pIbmbncp¶p _nsP]n t\Xmhv Ip½\w. Bsc `b¶mWp a{´n Cu {]XnIcWw \S¯nbsX¶ tNmZy¯nsâ Im¼v AXmbncp¶tÃm? Ip½\w Dt±in¨ apkvenw kapZmb¯nsâ ]mÀ«n Xs¶ IoÀ¯\t¯mSv AklnjvWpX ImWn¨ a{´ns¡Xntc {]kvXmh\bpambn h¶tXmsS Ip½\¯nsâ ]S¡w Noän. a{´namÀ sN¿p¶ {]hr¯nIsf F§s\bpw tamiam¡pI F¶XmWp {]Xn]£ ZuXysa¶pw A§s\bmWv A[nImc¯n Xncns¨t¯WvSXv F¶pw IcpXp¶hÀ P\w FÃmw a\knem¡p¶pWvSv F¶p Xncn¨dnbWw.

ARvPphpw AgnaXnbpw

ARvPp t_m_n tPmÀPnsâ A\p`hw t\m¡pI. C.]n. PbcmP³ Ahsc tIcf¯n \n¶p ]Snbnd¡nbt¸mÄ Xmes¸menbpambn tI{µw F¯p¶p. AXpw Hcp tZinb ImbnI]²XnbpsS Xe¸s¯ ]Zhnbpambn. CXp \yq\]£ {]oW\aÃtÃm? ARvPp NmSn t\Snb t\«amWv. CXneqsS _nsP]n ]eXpw e£yanSp¶pWvSv. AhÀ A´kmbn s]cpamdn F¶p ImbnIcwKs¯ kvt\ln¡p¶hsc¦nepw ]dbntÃ? ARvPp ]Snbnd§pt¼mÄ Hcp \à Imcyw sNbvXp. Ignª 10 hÀjs¯ kvt]mÀSvkv Iu¬knensâ {]hÀ¯\s¯¡pdn¨v Hcp At\zjWw \S¯Wsa¶ At]£ tcJmaqew, NoämsX sIm¯m³ F¯nb kmdn\p kaÀ¸n¨n«pWvSv. sI. _m_phns\Xnsc hcp¶ ]pXnb At\zjWs¯ cmjv{Sob ]It]m¡Â Ft¶m, Nm¡p cm[mIrjvWs\t¸mepÅhcpsS Ifn Ft¶m Hs¡ Nn{XoIcn¡msa¦nepw tIcf¯nse ImbnI Xmc§sf hnäpXn¶hÀs¡Xnsc ARvPp Bhiys¸Sp¶ At\zjWw \S¯ptam?


ZfnXv ]oU\§Ä

ZfnXv kaql¯n\p `mcX¯n Gsd \nba]cnc£ DWvSv. AXv Ahkcam¡n ZfnXÀ¡p kaql¯nse aäpÅhsc F´pw sN¿msa¶p IcpXp¶ \nebnte¡p Imcy§Ä \o§p¶p F¶p `bs¸Sp¶hcpw C¶v GsdbpWvSv. apÅv Cebn hoWmepw Ce apÅn hoWmepw Ce¡p tISv F¶ t]membn«pWvSp ]e kwc£W \nba§fpw. kv{XoIÄ¡pÅ kwc£W \nbahpw A¯cw Hcp am\w ssIhcn¡p¶pWvSv. tIcf \nbak`bn sI. apcfo[c³ Hcn¡Â Cu AhØsb Xpd¶p Nn{XoIcn¨p.

IÀWmSIbn KpÂ_ÀKbnse Hcp kzImcy \gvknwKv tImfPn ]Tn¡m³ t]mb ae¸pdwImcn Ip«n AhnsS Iq«pImcnIfm D]{Zhn¸n¡s¸«p. \á\r¯w BSWsa¶p Ip«ntbmSv Bhiys¸« tN¨namÀ AXn\p hnk½Xn¨ B Ip«nsb D]{Zhn¨Xp a\pjyXzclnXambmWv. AXp sNbvXXp ]oU\§Ä¡p \nbakwc£Ww DÅ s]¬Ip«nIÄ Xs¶bmWv. AhnsS D]{Zhn¡s¸«Xp ZfnXv hn`mK¯n s]« Ip«nbmWv F¶Xp kw`h¯nsâ ss]imNnIX Iq«p¶ptWvSm? B tN¨namÀ Bsc Bbmepw D]{Zhn¡ntÃ? ZfnXv hn`mK¯n s]«hfmbmepw Asænepw C§s\ ]oUn¸n¡s¸Sp¶hÀ¡p kwc£Whpw klmbhpw ]oUn¸n¨hÀs¡Xnsc \S]Snbpw thtWvS? FÃm¯n\pw ZfnXv \ndw sImSp¡p¶Xv F´n\v?

I®qcn kn]nFw þ tIm¬{Kkv {]hÀ¯IÀ X½n \S¶ kwL«\hpw AtX XpSÀ¶pWvSmb \S]SnIfpw ZfnXv ]oU\am¡s¸«Xpw ZfnXv kwc£W \nbas¯ sIWnbm¡p¶XtÃ? ZfnXÀ BbXpsImWvSmtWm AhnsS B kv{XoIÄ B{Ian¡s¸«Xv? AhcpsS ]nXmhnsâ A\nb³ kn]nF½nepWvSv. ZfnXÀ ZfnXsc B{Ian¨m F´mhptam \oXn? B kw`hs¯¡pdn¨v Nm\ NÀ¨bn ]s¦Sp¯ kn]nFw h\nXm t\Xmhv Fs´ms¡bmWp ]dªXv? Nm\epImÀ¡v tdänwKv IqSn¡mWpw. ]t£ C¯cw hÀ¯am\w ]dªhcpw AXv ssehmbn kwt{]jWw sNbvXhcpw Xncp¯s¸SWw. AhÀs¡Xntc tIkv FSp¯Xpt]mse Nm\en\v FXntcbpw tIkv FSp¡tWvS? Ft´ AhÀs¡Xntc ]cmXn t]mepw CÃ?

kwØm\s¯ ]«nIPmXn I½oj³ sNbÀamt\mSv B kv{XoIÄ ]cmXnsbm¶pw ]dªnsÃt¶m FwFÂFs¡Xntc ]cmXn ]dªnsÃt¶m Hs¡ I½oj³ ]dbp¶Xp tI«p. I½oj³ ]dªXn\p ISIhncp²ambn AhÀ t]meokn samgnbpw sImSp¯p. CXmWv heXp kÀ¡mÀ \nban¡p¶ I½oj\pIfpsS kz`mhw. C§s\ BtLmjn¡p¶Xp tIm¬{KkpImcpsS am{Xw ssienbsöv BÀ¡mWv Adnbm¯Xv? F´n\pw GXn\pw tI{µ I½oj\pambn hcp¶ _nsP]nbpw AXp Xs¶ sN¿p¶p.

heXp kÀ¡mcmbncp¶p tIcfw `cn¡p¶sX¦n I®qÀ kw`hw t]mse H¶v DWvSmbm F´mIpambncp¶p kn]nFw BtLmjw? Pnj h[t¡kv BtLmjn¨ coXn IWvSm aXnbtÃm? F´mbncp¶p BtLmjw? AhcpsS FwFÂF kmPpt]mfns\Xntc PnjbpsS A½ {]kvXmh\ \S¯nbn«pw kÀ¡mÀ hncp² kacam¡nbntÃ? kÀ¡mÀ Fs´Ãmw sNbvXp? h[n¡s¸«t¸mÄ tN¨n¡p kÀ¡mÀ tPmen. AhÀ¡p hoSv. A½bv¡p e£§fpsS kÀ¡mÀ klmbw. sI]nknkn hI e£§fpsS klmbw ]pdsa. Pnj sIme]mXI¯n kXy¯nsâ apJw sXfnbpt¼mÄ Cu klmb§sfms¡ thWvSnbncpt¶m F¶p tXm¶nt¸mIptam Bthm?

Ifn X§Ä Ifn¡p¶Xpt]mse cmjv{SobamsW¶pw am[yaI¨hS¡mÀ \S¯p¶ ZfnXv hnem]w tdänwKv Iq«m\pÅ IfnbmsW¶pw Dd¸pÅ ]nWdmbn tIknsâ Imcyw t]meoknt\mSp tNmZn¡m³ ]dªp hyXykvXX ]peÀ¯p¶p. Xm\msW¦n A§s\ {]XnIcn¡nÃmbncp¶p F¶v D½³ NmWvSn kXyambpw ]dbpw. D½³NmWvSnsbt¸mse am[ya§fpsS B{IaW¯n\p \n¶psImSp¡m³ ]nWdmbn¡p XmXv]cyw CÃmbncn¡pw. Hcp amXncns¸« ]«§sfÃmw \n§Ä F\n¡p NmÀ¯n X¶Xtà F¶p tNmZn¡pt¼mÄ \n§fpsS Ifnsbms¡ F\n¡p ]pÃmsW¶tà ]nWdmbn ]dbmsX ]dbp¶Xv!

ssIbSn t\Sp¶ hnPb³

Xncph\´]pcw bqWnthgvknän tImfPnsâ 150þmw hmÀjnI¯nsâ DZvLmS\ thf. apJya{´n ]nWdmbn hnPb³ Bbncp¶p DZvLmSI³. hnZym`ymka{´n {]^. cho{µ\mYv, XeØm\¯nsâ a{´n ISIw]Ån kptc{µ³ FÃmhcpw thZnbnepWvSv. ap³ No^v sk{I«dn kn.]n. \mbsct¸mepÅ {]apJÀ kZknepw. DZvLmS\ NS§pIÄ \nÝbn¨Xnepw sshIn. DZvLmS\ {]kwK¯n\v Fgpt¶ä apJya{´n DZvLmS\w \nÀhln¨ tijw ]dªp, hnZymÀYnIÄ¡p am{Xaà A[ym]IÀ¡pw thWw IrXy\njvT F¶v. ]cn]mSnIÄ sshInbXp icnbmbnÃ. AXpsImWvSp Xm³ Xbmdm¡nb {]kwKw ]dbp¶nà F¶v At±lw ]dªp.

shÂU¬ apJya{´n! CXp \à amXrIbpw in£WhpamWv. A§v Cu \ne]mSn Dd¨p\n¡Ww. \ap¡p s]mXpPohnX¯n Ipsd A¨S¡w DWvSmhs«. C\n A§pw A§bpsS a{´namcpw ImcWw Hcp ]cn]mSnbpw sshImXncn¡s«. Xmes¸menbpw ]nSn¨p shbnÂsImWvSp Ip«nIÄ XfÀ¶p hogmXncn¡s«.

Xt±i kzbw`cW Øm]\§fnse P\{]Xn\n[nItfmSp kwkmcn¡sh \n§Ä HmWtddnbw Iq«p¶Xns\¡pdn¨Ã \mSnsâ hnIk\s¯¡pdn¨mWp Nn´nt¡WvSXv F¶p apJya{´n \S¯nb D]tZihpw ssIbSn t\Sp¶Xmbn. Cu Øm]\§fnse \à ]¦v {]Xn\n[nIfpw X§Ä¡p ]¯pImiv DWvSm¡p¶Xns\¡pdn¨p am{XamWv Nn´n¡p¶sX¶p ]cs¡ kwkmcapWvSv.

almßPnbpw aZÀ sXtckbpw aXcmjv{ShmZnIfpw

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tUm. ^nen¸v s\ev]pc¸d¼nÂ


\·bpsS {]ImitKm]pc§sf sISp¯n¡fbpI F¡mehpw ^mknÌv X{´§fpsS `mKambncp¶p. FÃmhtcbpw Ccp«nemgv¯nbmetà AÔImciànIÄ¡p {]hÀ¯n¡m\mIq! ASp¯Ime¯p aXcmjv{ShmZnIfmb kwLS\IÄ \S¯p¶ {]hÀ¯\§Ä, hnf¡qXns¡Sp¯n FÃmhtcbpw AÔImc¯nemgv¯n X§fpsS lnU³ AP³U \S¸m¡m³ {ian¡p¶ ^mknÌv iànIsf \nc´cw HmÀan¸n¡p¶pWvSv.


hnf¡p sISp¯p¶sX´n\v?

almßmKmÔn \½psS cmjv{S]nXmhmWv. [ocXbpsSbpw kvt\l¯nsâbpw kXykÔbpsSbpw emfnXy¯nsâ kaÀ¸W¯nsâbpsams¡ BÄcq]w. FÃm XeapdIsfbpw tZiImet`ZanÃmsX {]tNmZn¸n¡p¶ hyàn. aXkulmÀZs¯bpw kmtlmZcys¯bpw Poh\pXpeyw IcpXnb almßmhv. At±ls¯ t_m[]qÀhw XakvIcn¡m\pÅ {iaw Bkq{XnXambn \S¡p¶p. At±ls¯ shSnsh¨psIm¶ tKmUvsk¡mbn kvamcIaµnc§Ä Dbcp¶p. CXp tIhew hn{Kl`RvP\aÃ; aXkmtlmZcyw hfÀ¯p¶, \·sb {]tNmZn¸n¡p¶, hgnIm«p¶ hnf¡pIÄ DuXns¡Sp¯emWv; \½sf AÔImc¯nemgv¯emWv.

BZcWobbmb aZÀ sXtckbpsS {]hÀ¯\§sf aX]cnhÀ¯\ {ia§fmbn hymJym\n¨p hyànlXy sNbvXp sXän²mcWIÄ ]c¯m\pÅ {iaamWnt¸mÄ. hnip²nbpsSbpw \·bpsSbpw {]tNmZ\amb aZdns\ kaqla\kn \n¶v D·qe\w sN¿m\pÅ \o¡¯nsâ `mKambncp¶ntà aZdnsâ {]hÀ¯\§Äs¡Xncmb taml³ `mKh¯nsâ Ignª hÀjs¯ {]kvXmh\? _nsP]nbpsS ]mÀesaâv AwKamb tbmKn BZnXy\mYpw C¡gnª \mfpIfn CtX Btcm]Ww DbÀ¯nbncn¡p¶p. ASnØm\clnXhpw A_²[mcWIÄ ]c¯p¶Xpamb {]NmcW¯neqsS D·qe\w sN¿m³ {ian¨Xp \½psS \mSnsâ ImcpWys¯bpw \·tbbpamWv. temIw apgph³ BZcn¡p¶, kvt\l¯nsâ BÄcq]s¯bmWv; hnip²nsbbmWv.


aX]cnhÀ¯\hpw IqSm¯ ss{IkvXh P\kwJybpw

IuXpIIcamb Hcp Imcyw aX]cnhÀ¯\w hgn ss{IkvXh P\kwJy IqSnbn«nà F¶XmWv! aZÀ sXtckbpsS 19 Øm]\§fpÅ tIm¡¯bn t]mepw ss{IkvXhcpsS P\kwJy IqSnbnÃ. aZÀ sXtck tIm¡¯bpsS sXcphpIfn hym]Iambn {]hÀ¯\w Bcw`n¡pt¼mÄ tIm¡¯bnse P\kwJybn tIhew 0.4 iXam\amWv ss{IkvXhcmbn DWvSmbncp¶Xv. C¶pw AXv 0.4 % am{Xambn XpScp¶p (Annuario Pontificio from 1957 to 2013). ]ns¶ F´SnØm\¯nemWv BÀFkvFkv Xeh³ aZÀ sXtck aX]cnhÀ¯\w \S¯nsb¶p ]dbp¶Xv? F´p e£yw h¨mWv At±lw Cu {]NmcWw \S¯nbXv? AhnsSbmWp ^mknÌv AP³UIÄ hyàam¡pI.

{_n«ojpImÀ BZyw IogS¡nb henb {]hniy _wKmfmbncp¶p. ¹mknbp²¯nÂ, 1757þ {_n«ojpImÀ AhnSw ]nSn¨S¡n. XpSÀ¶p tImfPpIfpw {]kpIfpw hnZymeb§fpsaÃmw {InkvXy³ anj\dnamÀ Bcw`n¨p. IqSmsX aZÀ sXtck 1952 apX D]hn{]hr¯nIÄ Bcw`n¨Xpw ChnsS¯s¶. F¶n«pw _wKmfnse P\kwJybn tIhew 0.64% am{XamWv ss{IkvXhÀ F¶Xpw {it²bamWv.

aZÀ sXtckbpsS anj\dokv Hm^v NmcnänbpsS hàmhmb kp\nXm IpamÀ kn¡v aXhnizmknbmb Hcp h\nXbmsW¶pÅXmWp asämcp Imcyw. aX]cnhÀ¯\w \S¯p¶ Hcp kwLw Hcp CXc aXhnizmknsb X§fpsS hàmhmbn \ntbmKn¨ncn¡p¶Xv Akw_ÔatÃ? aZÀ sXtckbvs¡Xncmb Btcm]Whpambn taml³ `mKh¯v cwK¯ph¶t¸mÄ anj\dokv Hm^v NmcnänbpsS \ne]mSpIÄ hniZoIcn¨Xp aZÀ sXtckbvs¡m¸w {]hÀ¯n¨ Cu h\nXbmWv. ZoÀLImew anj\dokv Hm^v Nmcnän k\ymkn\nIÄs¡m¸w {]hÀ¯n¨ kp\nXmIpamÀ taml³ `mKh¯nsâ {]kvXmh\ Akw_Ôhpw A_²PUnehpambmWp hnebncp¯nbXv. X§fpsS IqsS\n¶v, X§fpsS \ne]mSpIÄ hniZam¡WvS hyànbpsSt]mepw aX]cnhÀ¯\¯n\p Xp\nbm¯hÀ F§s\ aäpÅhsc aX]cnhÀ¯\w sN¿pw? aX]cnhÀ¯\w e£yambpÅhÀ F§s\ aäp aX¡msc X§fpsS hàm¡fm¡pw?


a\x]cnhÀ¯\hpw aXwamähpw

]Ýna _wKmfpImc\pw ZoÀLImew IayqWnÌv ]mÀesatâdnb\pw temIvk`m kv]o¡dpambncp¶ tkma\mYv NmäÀPn aZÀ sXtckbpsS P·iXm_vZnbn Zn ho¡v þ (2010 HmKÌv 29 e¡w) FgpXnbXv HmÀ¡p¶p; FÃmhcmepw AhKWn¡s¸«hÀ¡p IcpXepw Imhepambncp¶ aZÀ sXtckbv¡p aX]cnhÀ¯\w Hcp e£yta Bbncp¶nÃ. ap³ Ce£³ I½ojWdpw aZÀ sXtckbpsS PohNcn{XImc\pamb \ho³ Nuf ]dbp¶Xv C§s\bmWv: lnµphmb Rm³ 23 hÀjw aZdns\ A\p[mh\w sNbvXncp¶p. Hcn¡Ât¸mepw aX]cnhÀ¯\ \nÀtZiw AhÀ DcnbmSnbXmbn tI«n«nÃ. Hcn¡Â aX]cnhÀ¯\s¯¡pdn¨v tNmZn¨t¸mÄ aZÀ ]dªp "Rm³ ]cnhÀ¯\w sN¿mdpWvSv. \n§sf \à lnµphmbn, \à apkvenambn, \à t{]m«Ìâmbn, \à kn¡pImc\mbn. At±lw tcJs¸Sp¯p¶p: AhÀ sXcphn \n¶v FSp¯phfÀ¯p¶ Ip«nIfn sXm®qdp iXam\hpw Zs¯Sp¯n«pÅXp lnµp¡fmWv. AhscÃmw lnµp¡fmbn hfcp¶p. {InkvXym\nIÄ Zs¯Sp¯ Ipªp§sf am{XamWp amt½mZok ap¡nbn«pÅXv.

_p²aX BNmcy\mb `n£p Pn³ tKmwKv 2012 HIvtSm_À 31þ\v aZÀ sXtcksb¡pdn¨p \S¯nb {]kwK¯n Hcp kw`hw hnhcn¡p¶pWvSv. tIm¡¯bnse ImfnL«nse t£{Xt¯mSp tNÀ¶pÅ ØeamWv A[nIrXÀ aZÀ sXtckbv¡v Bew_lo\sc ip{iqjn¡m\pÅ Øeambn BZyw \evInbXv. A[nIw XmaknbmsXXs¶ aZÀ sXtck aX]cnhÀ¯\w \S¯p¶psh¶ hmÀ¯ ]c¶p. Hcp hn`mKw BfpIÄ t]meokns\ kao]n¡pIbpw t]meokv I½ojWÀ aZÀ sXtcksb ]pd¯m¡msa¶v Dd¸psImSp¡pIbpw sNbvXp. aZdnsâ `h\¯n Imcy§Ä At\zjn¡m³ sN¶ t]meokv I½ojWÀ AhnsS acWmk¶scbpw IpjvTtcmKnIsfbpw PmXnþaX t`ZanÃmsX ip{iqjn¡p¶XpIWvSv AZv`pXs¸«p. Ahcn ]ecpsSbpw ]pgp¡Ä Acn¡p¶ {hW§Ä aZÀ sXtck Xs¶ ipNnbm¡n h¨psI«p¶Xp IWvS lnµphmb I½ojWÀ, Ft¸mgmWv aZÀ sXtcksb ]pd¯m¡p¶sX¶p tNmZn¨htcmSp \n§fpsS A½amcpw ktlmZcnamcpw aZÀ sXtck sN¿p¶ Cu ip{iqj sN¿p¶ Ime¯p Rm³ Ahsc ]pd¯m¡psa¶mWp adp]Sn \evInbXv.

{InkvXobXtbmsSm¸wXs¶ ]g¡apÅXpw cWvSmbncw hÀjs¯ ]mc¼cyw Gäp]dbp¶Xpamb ss{IkvXhkaqlamWv C´ybnepÅXv. ChnsS anj\dnamcpsS BZy BKa\w ]Xn\mdmw \qämWvSnembncp¶tÃm. F¶n«pw C´ybn tIhew 2.3 % am{Xw ss{IkvXhcmWpÅXv. (tIcf¯n 1957þ 22 iXam\ambncp¶p ss{IkvXhsc¦n C¶Xv 18 iXam\ambn Ipdªncn¡p¶p). IuXpIIcamb Hcp Imcyw lnµpaXw Ht¶m H¶ctbm \qämWvSp ap¼v F¯nb bqtdm]y³ cmPy§fn ]ebnS¯pw AXn IqSpX lnµp¡Ä DsWvS¶XmWv. eWvS³ \Kc¯n 5 % lnµp¡Ä DsWvS¶mWv IW¡pIÄ ImWn¡p¶Xv. Cw¥WvSn 1.9 % hpw Im\Ubn 1.6% hpw Hmkvt{Senbbn 1.28 % Dw lnµp¡fpWvSv. CXpw C´ybnse Ccp]Xp\qämWvSnse ss{IkvXhcpsS P\kwJym]camb hfÀ¨bpw XmcXayw sN¿m³ aXcmjv{ShmZnIÄ XbmdmIptam?

aXcmjv{ShmZhpw P\m[n]Xyhpw

hnizmk{]NmcWw `cWLS\ AwKoIcn¨n«pÅ AhImiamWv. AXpsImWvSp Xs¶ AXn A_²tam Xn·tbm H¶pw ImtWWvS ImcyanÃ. F¶mÂ, bmYmÀYy¯n\p \nc¡m¯ Btcm]W§Ä Bsc¡pdn¨pw D¶bn¡p¶Xpw sXän²mcW ]c¯p¶Xpw Hcn¡epw AwKoIcn¡m\mInÃ. kXys¯bpw \oXnsbbpw kwc£nt¡WvSXv FÃmhcptSbpw ISaXs¶bmWv.

^mknÌv t\XrXzt¯mSpw AXnsâ Bib§tfmSpw F¶pw aaX ]peÀ¯pI am{Xaà AXn \n¶pw DuÀPhpw DWÀhpw kzoIcn¡pIbpw sNbvXhcmWv ChnSs¯ aXcmjv{ShmZnIÄ. AXpsImWvSp aXcmjv{S¡mÀ¡p X§fpsS Bib{]NcW¯n\p ^mknÌpIfptSXpt]mse klhÀ¯nXz¯nsâbpw kmtlmZcy¯nsâbpsams¡ \·IÄ D·qe\w sNbvtX ]äq.

`n¶n¸pIÄ cq]s¸Sp¯n X§fnÂs]Sm¯hsc D·qe\w sN¿Ww. AXv Cu kn²m´¯nsâbpw ssienbpsSbpw `mKw Xs¶bmWv. AXmWp \½psS \m«nepw Ct¸mÄ sXfnªphcp¶Xv. cmjv{S]nXmhns\ hoWvSpw sImesN¿p¶Xv; kÀhmZcWobcmbhsc AhaXn¡cpXv.

Hcp {]Øm\¯nsâ t\XrØm\¯pÅhÀ C´y³ P\m[n]Xy¯n\p hncp²ambn C´ysb Hcp aXcmjv{Sam¡n XoÀ¡psa¶p s]mXpthZnbn {]Jym]n¡pIbpw A\pbmbnIÄ AXns\ FXnÀ¡mXncn¡pIbpw sN¿pt¼mÄ kzm`mhnIambpw AXv B {]Øm\¯nsâ \ne]mSmbn IcpXpw. aXcmjv{Sambn C´ysb amänsbSp¡m\mbn ]mT]pkvXI§fneqsS Bib{]NmcWw \S¯m³ `cWm[nImcnIÄ {ian¡pt¼mÄ Cu \ne]mSpIÄ hyàamIp¶p. _lpkzcXsb FXnÀ¡pIbpw \yq\]£§fpsS tZhmeb§Ä A{Ian¡s¸SpIbpw sN¿pt¼mÄ AXp IqSpX hyàamIp¶p; ^mknÌv X{´§Ä L«wL«ambn ]pd¯phcnIbpw sN¿p¶p.

]Ýntajybn aX\yq\]£§sf sIms¶mSp¡nbpw X«ns¡mWvSpt]mbpw NneÀ aXcmjv{Sw Øm]n¡m³ {ian¡pt¼mÄ ChnsS sXän²mcWIÄ ]c¯nbpw aXkulmÀZ aqey§Ä DbÀ¯n¸nSn¡p¶hsc XakvIcn¨pw ]mhs¸« P\§sf akvXnjvI{]£mf\w \S¯nbpw aXcmjv{S¯n\mbn \o¡§Ä \S¡p¶p. amÀK§Ä hyXykvXamsW¦nepw cWvSp Iq«cpsSbpw e£yw aXcmjv{SamsW¶p hyàam¡p¶ \ne]mSmWv CXphsc ImWm³ Ignªn«pÅXv.

ChnsS FÃm aXhnizmknIfpw GtImZcktlmZc§sft¸mse Ignbp¶hcmWv; ]ckv]cw hnizmk§sf BZcn¨pw AwKoIcn¨pw Ignbp¶hÀ; ]ckv]cw BtLmj§fn ]s¦Sp¡p¶hÀ; ZpxJ§fn ]¦ptNcp¶hÀ. ChnSs¯ sslµh kaqls¯ aXcmjv{ShmZ¡mÀ Hcphn[¯nepw {]Xn\n[m\w sN¿p¶nà F¶XmWp bmYmÀYyw. sF Fkv apkvenwIsf {]Xn\n[m\w sN¿m¯Xpt]mse Xs¶bmWnXv. aXcmjv{ShmZnIÄ Cu kwkvIrXnbnte¡p \pgªpIbdm³ {ian¡p¶Xp Xpd¶pImt«WvSXp s]mXp\·sb Imw£n¡p¶ FÃmhcptSbpw ISaXs¶bmWv.

AcpXv, ]cnlmkw

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_nj]v tXmakv sI. D½³

tIcf¯nsâ cmjv{Sobþ kmaqlnIþ kmwkvImcnI kqNnIbn Ft¸mgpw kPoh NÀ¨bmIp¶ Hcp hnjbamWp aZykwkvImchpw Kh¬saâpIfpsS aZy\b§fpw. Cu A´mcmjv{S elcnhncp² Zn\w a\pjysâ BXy´nI \·sb e£ywhbv¡p¶ `cWm[nImcnIÄ¡p shÃphnfn DbÀ¯n, a\pjyPohnX¯n\pta Bkpc\r¯w Nhn«ns¡mWvSncn¡p¶ aZysa¶ sImSpwhn]¯ns\Xntc \½psS a\xkm£nsb hoWvSpw DWÀ¯pIbmWv. F¶mÂ, C¯cw Zn\mNcW§fpsS NS§pIÄ¡¸pdw Hcp kmaqlnIhn]¯v F¶ \nebn aZys¯ t\cnSp¶Xn\v A\pKpWamb kXzc\S]SnIÄ `cWtI{µ§fnÂ\n¶v DWvSmIp¶nà F¶Xp k¦SIcamWv.

tIcf¯nse _mdpIÄ AS¨p]q«nbt¸mÄ \m«n³]pd§fnse Xpdkmb Øe§Ä aZy]À¡v AgnªmSm³ Ignbp¶ s]mXpCS§fmbn cq]m´cs¸«p F¶XmWp bmYmÀYyw. aZy\ntcm[\w X§fpsS e£yamsW¶p ]dbp¶hÀt]mepw AXn\p ISIhncp²ambn {]hÀ¯n¡p¶Xp ImWpt¼mÄ BcmWv tcmjmIpecmIm¯Xv?

\mSnsâ `mhn em¡m¡n XeapdIfpsS \· e£ywhbv¡p¶ aZy\bhpw ImgvN¸mSpIfpamWv C¶nsâ Bhiyw. `cWI£nbpsS CwKnX§Ä¡¸pdw, kwØm\s¯ FÃmhn`mKw BfpIsfbpw AhcpsS A`n{]mb§sfbpw am\n¨v \mSn\p Znimt_m[w \ÂIp¶ Xc¯nepÅ Hcp amÀKtcJ DWvSmt¡WvSXv BhiyamWv. C¡mcy¯n `cWt\XrXz¯n\v CÑmiàn DWvSmIWw.

kwØm\¯n\v DNnXamb Hcp aZy\bw DWvSmtIWvSnbncn¡p¶p. `cn¡p¶ I£nbpsS CwKnX¯n\\pkcn¨p amdp¶ H¶mbncn¡cpXp aZy\bw. kaql¯nse FÃm hn`mK§fpsSbpw A`n{]mbw tiJcn¨p icnbmb Znimt_m[w \ÂIp¶ amÀKtcJbpsS ASnØm\¯n cq]s¸Sp¶Xmbncn¡Ww AXv. s]mXpP\m`n{]mbw Adnªtijta C\nsbmcp aZy\bw cq]oIcn¡mhq. Asæn emän\tacn¡³ cmPy§Ä t\cnSp¶Xpt]mepÅ shÃphnfnIÄ \mw t\cntSWvSnhcpw. aZyhpw ab¡pacp¶pw btYjvSw e`n¡p¶ kwØm\ambn A[x]Xn¡pw.

\mw t\cnSp¶ {]iv\§sf emLh_p²ntbmsS kao]n¡cpXv. [ocamb Xocpam\§sfSp¡pt¼mgmWp `cWm[nImcnbpsS hnPb¯nsâ amäv hÀ[n¡p¶Xv. ]pXnb Xeapd \in¨pt]mImXncn¡m³ {i²nt¡WvShÀ Dd¡w \Sn¨p InS¡pIbmWv. C\n Hcp Xncn¨pt]m¡ns\¡pdn¨v BtemNn¡p¶Xpt]mepw BXvalXym]camb \o¡ambncn¡pw.

kaql¯n ImWp¶ ]pgp¡p¯pIÄs¡Xntc i_vZapbÀ¯ns¡mWvSncp¶ kmwkvImcnI \mbIÀ Ipänbäpt]mtbm F¶p kwibnt¡WvSnbncn¡p¶ Hcp hn]XvkÔnbnemWp \man¶v. CXp a\knem¡m³ tIcfobkaqlw Xbmdmbn«nsöXmWv Gsd ZpxJIcw. \½psS apXnÀ¶ Xeapdbpw bphP\§fpw amcIamb elcnbpsS h\yhpw `oIchpamb BkànIÄ¡v ASns¸«pIgnªncn¡p¶p. kvIqfpIfnÂhsc IpSnshÅ¡p¸nIfn Ip«nIÄ aZyw sImWvSphcp¶psWvS¶Xp \½psS kaql¯nsâ A]ISIcamb bm{X Ft§ms«¶p \s½ Nn´nt¡WvSXtÃ? Häs¸« kw`h§Ä ]ÀhXoIcn¨p ImWn¡pIbÃ. kvIqÄ ItemÕh§Ä¡pw hmÀjnI§Ä¡pw hnt\mZbm{XIÄ¡pw Ip«nIÄ aZy]n¡p¶psWvS¶Xv hnZym`ymktaJebn {]hÀ¯n¡p¶ GhÀ¡pw Adnbmhp¶ ]ckyamb clkyamWv.

Krl\mY·mcpsSbpw a¡fpsSbpw aZy]m\mkànbn a\w aSp¡p¶ Hcp Iq«À \½psS hoSpIfnepWvSv. aämcpaÃ, \½psS A½amÀXs¶. \nklmbcmbn I®oscmgp¡m³ hn[n¡s¸«hÀ. aeshŸm¨nensâ iànsb ]nSn¨p\nÀ¯m³ AhÀ¡p Ignbpw. kz´w a¡fpsS aZy]m\¡ps¯mgp¡n ]nSn¨p\n¡m³ HcnSw tXSp¶hcmWhÀ. ]T\¯nepw CXc _u²nI {]hÀ¯\§fnepw anIhpähcmb F{Xtbm Ip«nIfmWp kzbw XoÀ¡p¶ IqSpIfnte¡v DÄhenbp¶Xv. \mSnsâ A`nam\ambn hftcWvS Cu a¡sf¡pdn¨p \ap¡v bmsXmcp D¯chmZnXzhpantÃ? bmsXmcp t_m[hpanÃmsX hgntbmc§fnepw hoSpIfnepw aZy]n¨p ab§p¶ a\pjysc¡pdn¨v Nn´n¡m³ aämsc¦nepw "ssZh¯nsâ kz´w \mSmb tIcf¯nte¡v' hcpsa¶p {]Xo£n¨p IgnbpIbmtWm \mw?

CÃ, CXp IWvSp\n¡m³ \à \msfsb kz]v\w ImWp¶ BÀ¡pw IgnbpIbnÃ. `mhnsb¡pdn¨p Nn´n¡p¶hÀ¡p IgnbpIbnÃ. hnZymk¼¶À¡p IgnbpIbnÃ. cmPyw `cn¡p¶ `cWm[nImcnIÄ¡p IgnbpIbnÃ. XoÀ¨. ]XnXscbpw ]mhs¸«hscbpw thZ\n¸n¡p¶hscbpw hogvNbn AIs¸«hscbpw hgnbnept]£n¡m³ \ap¡mhnÃ. aZy]n¡p¶hsc A¯csamcp almhn]¯nÂ\n¶p c£n¡m³ Xbmdmbn \n¡p¶ kwbpà ss{IkvXh aZyhÀP\kanXn kz]v\w ImWp¶Xp aZyhnapàamb Hcp tIcfamWv. \mWb¯p«pIfpsS IW¡p]dªp XÃn¯IÀt¡WvSXà a\pjysâ BtcmKysa¶v Ghcpw HmÀan¡Ww. sXmgnenÃmbvabpsS IW¡pIÄ \nc¯n aZyhyhkmb¯nsâ amlmßys¯ \mw C\nbpw hmgv¯cpXv.

tIcf¯n aZyw btYjvSw Hgp¡nbm \ap¡p \jvSs¸Sp¶Xp `mhnXeapdsbbmsW¶ Xncn¨dnhmWv Gähpw henb Adnhv. hymPaZy¯nsâ Hgp¡v XSbm³ \mw Häs¡«mbn \n¶m am{Xw aXnbmIpw. elcntbmsSm¸w \m«n s]cpIp¶ ab¡pacp¶nsâ cq£hpw {Iqchpamb apJw tIcfobkaqls¯ t\m¡n ]Ãnfn¨psImWvSncn¡p¶p! cm£k`mhamÀ¶ C¯cw hn]¯pIsf XSbm\pÅ bXv\§Ä \½psS hnZymeb§fnÂ\n¶pXs¶ Bcw`nt¡WvSnbncn¡p¶p.

Cu A´mcmjv{S elcnhncp² Zn\¯n \n§Ä ]¦mfnbmIp¶nsænepw H¶pam{Xw A`yÀYn¡s«, aZy¯ns\Xncmb {]hÀ¯\§sf \n§Ä ]cnlkn¡cpXv. aZyw Ibdn aqSnb tIcfs¯ CXnÂ\n¶p c£n¡m³ cWvSmw ]cipcma³ agphpambn hoWvSpw F¯psa¶p \mw kz]v\w IWvSpd§pIbmtWm?

(knFkvsF sU]yq«n tamUtdädpw kwbpà ss{IkvXh aZyhÀP\kanXn {]knUâpw am§m\w {SmU sNbÀam\pamWp teJI³.)

bqtdm¸n\p ta Icn\ngÂ

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än.kn. amXyp

kqN\IÄ hfsc tamiamWv. AXpsImWvSmWp _ÄtKdnbbpsS {]knUâv tdmk³ s¹hvs\eohv hymgmgvN C§s\ ]dªXv: ""s{_Ivknän\p ]n¶mse bqtdm]y³ bqWnb³ XIÀ¶m bp²amIpw ^ew.''

PÀa³ {]knUâv tbmhm¡nw Ku¡v _ÄtKdnbbn F¯nbt¸mÄ \ÂInb kzoIcW¯nemWv s¹hvs\eohv CXp ]dªXv. At¸mÄ {_n«ojv P\X s{_Ivknän\v A\pIqeambn hn[nsbgpXpIbmbncp¶p.

1964 P\n¨ s¹hvs\eohv bqtdm¸nse henb bp²§sfm¶pw IWvSn«nÃ. ]gb bqtKmÉmhybnse cmPy§Ä 1990Ifn ]Ssh«nbXp IWvSn«papWvSv. 1945 hscbpÅ bqtdm]y³ Ncn{Xhpw bqtKmÉmhy³ inYneoIcW Ncn{Xhpw Adnbp¶ GsXmcmfpw At±lw ]dª hm¡v ad¡nÃ. bp²w. bqtdm¸nsâ `mhn AXmIm\pÅ km[yX XÅn¡fbm\mhnÃ. 1945 hscbpÅ Ncn{X¯n bqtdm]y³ cmPy§Ä ]ckv]cw s]mcpXm¯ XpSÀ¨bmb ]¯p hÀj§Ä ImWm³ {]bmkamWv.

kam[m\¯n\mbn...

cWvSmw temIalmbp²w Ignªt¸mÄ kam[m\Imw£nIfmb Iptdt¸cmWp bp²§fnÃm¯ Hcp temI¯n\pthWvSn sFIy bqtdm¸v F¶ Bibw apt¶m«ph¨Xv. AXn\p cmjv{Sob \o¡w \S¯nbXp tlKv tIm¬{Kkv F¶ t]cn 1948 \S¶ kt½f\amWv. bqtdm]y³ aqhvsaâv CâÀ\mjW Fs¶mcp {]Øm\w AXn XpS§n 1952 bqtdm]y³ tImÄ B³Uv Ìo IayqWnän cq]oIcn¨p. jmMv tamsW, AÂknsU Un Kmkvs]cn, tdm_À«v jpam³ XpS§nbhÀ cN\Ifpw {]hÀ¯\§fpw hgn GI bqtdm¸v Bibw {]Ncn¸n¨p.

Cu \o¡§Ä 1957þse tdmw DS¼Snbnte¡v F¯n¨p. ]ÝnaPÀa\n, {^m³kv, Cäen, s_ÂPnbw, s\XÀem³Uvkv, eIvkw_qÀKv F¶nh tNÀ¶p bqtdm]y³ C¡tWmanIv IayqWnän (CCkn) XpS§n.

Un tKmÄ At¶ IWvSp

lmtcmÄUv amIvanó (1894þ1986) F¶ I¬kÀthäohv ]mÀ«n t\Xmhv {_n«ojv {][m\a{´n (1957þ63) Bbncp¶t¸mgmWv CCknbn tNcm³ {_n«³ At]£ \ÂInbXv.

A¶p {^©v {]knUâv {^©v P\XbpsSbpw kwkvImc¯nsâbpw alXz¯n hnizkn¨ncp¶ NmÄkv UntKmÄ (1890þ1970) Bbncp¶p. {_n«ojpImsc At±l¯n\p ]pÑambncp¶p F¶pw ]dbs¸Sp¶p. GXmbmepw CCknbn tNcm\pÅ {_n«ojv At]£sb Un tKmÄ hotäm sNbvXp.

Un tKmÄ A[nImc¯nÂ\n¶p hncan¨p hÀj§Ä Ignªnt« {_n«\v CCknbn tNcm\mbpÅp. Ct¸mÄ bqtdm]y³ bqWnb\nÂ\n¶p ]n·mdp¶ BZys¯ cmPyambn amdns¡mWvSv {_n«³ bqtdm]y³ inYneoIcW¯n\p hgnXpd¡p¶p.

Ipäw ImatdmWn\v

FÃmhcpw Ipäs¸Sp¯p¶Xp tUhnUv ImatdmWns\bmWv. {_n«sâbpw bqtdm¸nsâbpw sFIyw CÃmXm¡p¶Xn\p XpS¡wIpdn¨ hyàn F¶ Bt£]w At±ls¯ F¡mehpw ]n´pScpw. bqtdm]y³ bqWnb\n XpScp¶ Imcys¯¸än P\lnX ]cntim[\ \S¯msa¶ ImatdmWnsâ {]Jym]\w A\hkc¯nembnt¸mbn. A{Xam{Xw k½ÀZw CÃmXncp¶t¸mÄ {]Jym]\w \S¯nbXp sXcsªSp¸p Pbn¡m³thWvSnbmbncp¶p. Imatdm¬ sXcsªSp¸p Pbn¨p. ]t£, lnX]cntim[\ Ignªt¸mÄ tXmäp; C\n cmPnhbv¡p¶p.

H¸w cmPy¯p\n¶p kvtIm«ve³Upw hS¡³ AbÀe³Upw hn«pt]mIpsa¶ \nehcp¶p. cWvSnS¯pw lnX]cntim[\ Bhiyw DbÀ¶p. hcpw \mfpIfn AXp iàns¸Spw.

Pn{_mÄ«À F¶ ]md

{_n«³ saUnätd\nb³ kap{Z¯nsâ IhmS¯n 1704 apX ssIhiw hbv¡p¶ Pn{_mÄ«À Zzo]n kvs]bn³ AhImihmZw D¶bn¨pIgnªp. 1967epw ‘96epw 2006epw AhnSs¯ P\§Ä {_n«sâ IqsSbmsW¶p ]dªXmWv. lnX]cntim[\bnepw `cWLS\m kzoIcW¯nepsams¡ CXpsXfnbn¨p. C\n {_n«sâ B`y´c LS\ amdp¶ kmlNcy¯n Pn{_mÄ«dn X§Ä¡p ImepIp¯m\mIpsa¶p kvs]bn³ IcpXp¶p.

lnX]cntim[\IÄ

{_n«s\m¸w bqtdm]y³ bqWnb\pw inYneoIcW `oXnbnemWv. kzoU\n lnX]cntim[\ Bhiyw DbÀ¶pIgnªp. s{_Ivknän\p ap¼p \S¶ Hcp kÀthbn 39 iXam\w {_n«ojpImtc bqtdm]y³ bqWnbsâ t\XrXz¯n hnizmkw {]ISn¸n¨ncp¶pÅq. kzoU\n CXp 45 iXam\w am{XamWv. Ct¸mÄ s{_Ivknän\p tijw C¡q«cpsS kwJy hoWvSpw Ipdbmw.

{KoknemWp bqtdm]y³ bqWnb\v Gähpw aXn¸p Ipdhv. 23 iXam\w am{Xw. Cäenbn 40, {^m³kn 48, s\XÀe³Uvkn 54, kvs]bn\n 55 iXam\w F¶n§s\bmWp bqWnb³ t\XrXz¯n\pÅ aXn¸v.

Cäenbn CubnsS henb \Kc§Ä ]nSn¨S¡nb ss^hvÌmÀ aqhvsaâv bqtdm]y³ bqWnb\n XpScp¶ Imcy¯n lnX]cntim[\ Bhiys¸«p. {^m³knse Xo{hheXp]£ t\Xmhv ado³ e s]³ FÃm bqtdm]y³ cmPy§fnepw lnX]cntim[\ Bhiys¸Sp¶p. s\XÀe³Uvknepw sU·mÀ¡nepw bqWnb³ hncp²À CtX Bhiyap¶bn¨n«pWvSv.

shÃphnfnIÄ

_mÄ¡³ cmPy§fpw XpÀ¡nbpw 2020HmsS bqWnb\n tNÀ¶p IqSpX iàamb bqtdm]y³ bqWnbs\ kz]v\wIWvSncp¶t¸mgmWv Cu amäw.

]pXnb kmlNcyw ssIImcyw sN¿m³ bqWnb³ t\XrXz¯n\v F§s\ Ignbpw F¶ tNmZyhpapWvSv. Ct¸mÄ s\XÀe³Uvkn\mWp bqtdm]y³ bqWnbsâ A[y£]Zhn. Pqsse H¶p apX Bdpamkt¯¡p tÉmhmIy¡mWv A[y£Øm\w. 2004 am{Xw bqtdm]y³ bqWnb\n tNÀ¶XmWp tÉmhmIy.

\nÀWmbIamb Cu kab¯p NÀ¨IÄ \bn¡m\pw Imcy§Ä X{´]cambn ssIImcyw sN¿m\papÅ sshZKv[yw tÉmhmIv {][m\a{´n tdm_À«v ^nävtkmbv¡pÅXmbn ]ecpw IcpXp¶panÃ. ""“ChnsS Ckveman\p Øm\anÃ’'' XpS§nb {]tbmK§fneqsS hnhmZ§Ä £Wn¨phcp¯nbn«papWvSv At±lw.

PÀa\n, {^m³kv

PÀa\nbpw {^m³kpamWv C\n bqtdmbnse iàÀ. bqWnb\nse cWvSmas¯ henb km¼¯nI iànbmbncp¶ {_n«³ ]n·mdp¶Xp henb _m[yXbpw DWvSm¡pw. PÀa³ Nm³keÀ BwKe saÀ¡Â {_n«³ t]mIp¶Xp {]iv\amsW¶pXs¶ IcpXp¶ BfmWv. F¦nepw hÀj§Ä \oWvS NÀ¨IÄ¡pw ]pXnb IcmÀ Fgp¯pIÄ¡pw tijta AXp kw`hn¡q F¶Xn\m XXvImew `bs¸Sp¶nÃ. {_n«sâ amäw hfsc KpcpXc {]XymLmXw DWvSm¡psa¶p ]dª {^©v {]knUâv {^m³kzm Hfmµv H¶n¨p \n¶psImWvSp bqtdm¸v {]iv\s¯ adnIS¡psa¶p ]dªp.

{Kokn bqtdm]y³ bqWnb³ hn«pt]mIWsa¶ Bhiyw iàambn hcnIbmWv. t]mĨpKenepw Cu hmZ¯n\p _ewIqSn.

sFIyansænÂ...

s]s«¶pÅ {]XnIcW§tf¡mÄ ZoÀLIme {]XymLmX¯nemWv FÃmhcpw Bi¦s¸Sp¶Xv. tZiobXsb adnIS¶pÅ s^Udenkw sFIyhpw kar²nbpw kam[m\hpw sImWvSphcpsa¶p Ignª \qämWvSnsâ cWvSmw]IpXnbnepÅhÀ IcpXn. tZiobXbpw hwiobXbpw A§s\ adªpt]mIp¶Xsöp s{_Ivknäv ImWn¨pX¶p. {_n«ojv shÅ¡mcsâ KÀhpw alXzt_m[hpw aäpÅhsc kzoIcn¡m\pÅ aSnbpw s{_Ivknän F¯n. Cu {]hWX aäp cmPy§fnepw hfcpt¼mÄ bqtdm CÃmXmIpw. bqtdm]y³ bqWnb³ XIcpw. At¸mÄ 1945\p ap¼pÅ kwLÀj`cnXamb \mfpIfnte¡p Xncn¨pt]mIptam F¶XmWp bYmÀY `oXn.

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